If you have social networks of people who are
talking with one another, you can have independent research and
spread in a hurry,'' says Cass Sunstein, a professor at Harvard Law School
It literally is as if it was contagious.
century Traveling charlatans
promote curing products
as social services through street performance.
"mounted the bench" (mountebank) , a stage, table or box, at fairs,
in market squares or wherever they could find an audience,
to convince the
crowd of its desperate need for medical miracle cures.
1449 King Henry VI grants Flemish-born John Utynam a patent
for making stained glass.
Black's Law Dictionary defines a patent as:
"The exclusive right to make, use or
sell an invention for
a specified period."
1527 Paracelsus creates the
pain pill - one quarter-weight of opium, hens-bane juice, mummia (the dried
flesh of mummified human bodies), salts of pearls and corals, bone of the heart
of the stag, bezoar stone (an intestinal concretion found in goats and
gazelles), amber, musk and "unicorn."
1552 King Edward VI grant Henry Smyth a patent
for making Normandy glass.
appear in Venice.
To draw the largest crowd and to
keep its attention fixed as long as
possible, the mountebanks resorted to a wide variety of entertainment
including, among others, jugglers, musicians, magicians, and clowns.
Small scale spectacles alternated with lectures demonstrating
Tonic to cure any ailment of the spectator, whether he was aware
of it or not.
1618 A Paris mountebank inspires
the work of Molière.
In England, nostrum makers succeed in
obtaining "Royal Patents" for their curing tonics and elixirs.
1620 Dr. Fuller, a
Puritan, arrives in
Dr. Fuller brings with him along with
his surgical fleam for bleeding patients, his clyster syringe, his forceps and
bonesaw a brass and rosewood medicine chest.
The chest holds 16
vials of medicine - emetics for inducing "a smart vomit," Spanish fly caustic
(useful for making counterirritant blisters), chinchona bark extractives,
paregoric and laudanum.
Though drunkenness was frowned on,
beer was staple in many Puritan
homes, fortifying the men in their dawn-to-dusk battles against the
wilderness, killing the pain and giving them a taste of the homeland they'd
William Bradford records "strong waters" (gin), aqua
vitae (brandy) and beer.
Tofana begins marketing "Manna di San Nicola", literally "Bread of
Life of St. Nicholas," in Palermo.
Manna di San Nicola is
sold as a cosmetic and a devotionary object in vials that include an image of
Aqua Tofana contained mostly
lead and possibly
was a colorless, tasteless liquid easily mixed with water or
Ingredients of the mixture are mostly known but not how they
Initially poisoning goes unnoticed as the substance is clear and
has no taste.
is slow acting, resembling death from
progressive natural diseases.
The symptoms seen are similar to the
effects of arsenic poisoning.
The first small dosage produces cold-like
The victim becomes very ill by the third dosage; symptoms
include vomiting, dehydration, diarrhea and a burning sensation in the
The antidote often given is vinegar and lemon juice
hastening the process.
The fourth dosage kills the victim, but being
slow acting, allows victims time to recognize and prepare for approaching
death, including writing a will.
Giulia Tofana plies her trade for a
half century selling Manna di San Nicola in Naples, Perugia, and Rome,
Legend suggests over 600 alleged abusive husbands as victims.
1659 Giulia Tofana is arrested and confesses to
She implicates a number of clients many of whom flee,
others are strangled in prison, and many are publicly executed.
1670 Affair of the Poisons: Influential
members of the French nobility began to die, unexpectedly and close upon one
Autopsies showed their insides blackened and corroded.
A fever for poisoning and witchcraft seems to have infected the
XIV establishes a special tribunal - a Chambre Ardente, or "burning
room" - to
investigate and prosecute the murders.
Of 323 cases examined,
two-thirds of the cases come to a final verdict.
39 individuals are
able to vindicate themselves and are set free with only an injunction that they
live "as good Christians in the holy Catholic faith".
associated with 142 cases was amende honorable meaning an "honorable penalty"
which included fines, public ceremonies of penance, banishments, and
beatings with warnings
never to engage in heresy again.
37 sentences of death were
pronounced of which 6 individuals were
burned at the stake while 31
other individuals were hung on the
Sydenham publishes Treatise on the Gout.
Sydenham argued gout was
the result of "ease, voluptuousness, high
living, and too free an
use of wine and other spirituous liquors".
He thought bleeding and
purging could be counterproductive driving "peccant humours" further into the
Sydenham recommended a light diet, plenty of fluid, and
regular doses of a digestive remedy he called Bitters - distilled
alcohol infused with watercress, horseradish, wormwood, and angelica
The generic term Bitters is traditionally an alcoholic
preparation flavored with botanical matter so that the end result is
characterized by a bitter, or bittersweet flavor.
1698 First patent medicine - Epson
Magnesium sulfate is an inorganic salt with the formula
MgSO4X where 0≤x≤7.
It is often encountered as
the heptahydrate sulfate mineral epsomite, commonly called Epsom salt.
The overall global annual usage in the mid-1970s of the monohydrate was
2.3 million tons, of which the majority was used in agriculture.
1711 Sal Volitile patented.
is a salt with the chemical formula (NH4)2CO3.
As it readily degrades to gaseous ammonia and carbon dioxide upon
heating, it is used as a leavening agent and also as smelling
1712 Richard Stoughton patents
The first patent medicines to appear in
America came from England.
In the eighteenth century medical theorists
believed that disease could be driven from the body only by a substance as
appalling as the illness.
The worse a medicine tasted or smelled, the
greater its corrective power.
These foul-tasting, foul-smelling
products had ingredients that had an effect on the body, thus giving
illusion of a cure in action.
Carminative, and Godfrey's
Cordial contained the sedative opium.
purged the digestive system and induced menstruation.
Oil and Steer's
Opodeldoc were both liniments containing ammonia that irritated the
Laudanum: "Prep. Take 1/2 lb. of opium, sliced; 3 pints of good
verjuice; 1 1/2 oz of nutmeg; 1/2 oz of saffron; boil them to proper thickness,
then add 1/2 lb of sugar and two spoonfuls of yeast. Set the whole in a warm
place, near the fire, for 6 or 8 weeks, then place it in the open air until
becomes of the consistence of a syrup; lastly, decant, filter and bottle it up,
adding a little sugar to each bottle. These ingredients ought to yield, when
properly made, about 2 pints of the strained liquor."
1800 Dr. Toustall of The Society of Friends
bitter sweet 'drop': concoction of opium dissolved in the juice of crab apples,
and flavored with nutmeg, saffron, yeast and
"Devil Bill" Rockefeller
Sr. identifies himself as a "botanic physician" selling elixirs under the alias
of Dr. William Levingston.
1849 In the city of
Auburn, New York William Avery Rockefeller is indicted for the rape of Ann
Vanderbeak, household staff, at gunpoint.
Bill abandoned the family
while Lucy, John, and William Jr. are teenagers.
Before leaving Eliza,
he has two daughters with housekeeper Nancy Brown.
Having assumed the
name Dr. William Levingston, he marries Margaret Allen in Norwich, Ontario,
Canada. Bill and Margaret had no children together.
John D. Rockefeller
never publicly acknowledged his father was a bigamist.
1858 Erasmus Bond receives a patent for quinine
Quinine-laced Tonic Water is the Western cultural outcome of
three centuries of military and
medical efforts to overcome malaria.
The promotion of patent
medicines is one of the first major products heavily displayed in the early
Numerous sales techniques are pioneered by patent medicine promoters.
Patent medicines, sold at
high prices, are made of
|Some patent medicines
target specific conditions:
Dr. Goodman's American
Aromatic Lozenges of Steel (for sexual
Pink Pills for Pale People
Some attempt to
Dr. Hamlin's Wizard Oil
make claims of scientific
Dr. Judge's Oxy-Hydrogenated Air
Radam's Microbe Killer
Boothman's Pure Phlogiston
Bragg's Arctic Liniment
Japanese Life Pills
Roman Eye Balsam
Jayne's Spanish Alternative
Osgood's Indian Cholagogue
Some are simply inexplicable:
Dr. Tichenor's Antiseptic Refrigerant
Golden Liquid Beef
Some are aimed directly at curing 'female troubles':
Bradfield's Female Regulator
Vegetable Compound (21% alcohol, Miss Pinkham was a vocal supporter of
Quite a few with names such as Grandma's
Tyke-Relaxant and Baby-Ease were sold to mothers who would try anything
to calm and quiet their children.
Often these remedies contained
Mrs. Winslow's Soothing Syrup, for instance, had on average
.05 grams of morphine in every bottle.
The Birth of Heroin and the
Demonization of the Dope Fiend
1860 Up until 1835 David Hosack encourages the use of the
root-based medicine as it cure cases of liver, kidney and bladder troubles.
Legend suggets Dr. Hosack gave his recipe to a number of his pupils,
one of which saved the life of a Mr .Hunt, a New York City resident, afflicted
with Bright's disease (kidney malfunction) and Dropsy (excess water in body
Hunt's "bloated flesh" was reduced and vigor restored after
taking the medicine for about a year.
Hunt began to manufacture and
market it as "Hunt's Remedy."
In 1908 a Kansas State Board of Health
Report described it as "a brown solution of bitter vegetable drugs, containing
17.2 per cent alcohol."
1880 Milk of
1881 The Proprietary
Association is founded by trade group of medicine producers along with a
press dependent on remedy advertising fight bitterly against any type of
1887 Friedrich Carl Duisberg learns
that one of Bayer's thusfar useless by-products paranitrophenol
is chemically similar to Antifebrin.
Thousands of barrels of this
residue are piled up in the factory yard.
Duisberg orders observers to
create a new drug from this waste.
Duisberg's men worked in conditions
ridiculously crude and chaotic.
Clouds of noxious vapors filled the air.
Many observers - working in hallways, bathrooms, and unheated
outbuildings - having no access to sinks
use the river.
ground around the building is a caustic witch's brew; men wear thick-soled
wooden clogs as the acidic mud burns through leather shoes.
begins selling Phenacetin - the first synthetic drug ever to be created,
manufactured, tested and sold all by the same commercial
Phenacetin is widely used as an
fever reducing drug in both
human and veterinary medicine until withdrawn in the 1970s.
is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
as carcinogenic to
Phenacetin is associated with an increased risk of death due
to urologic or renal disease; death due to cancer;
death due to cardiovascular
Chronic use of phenacetin leads to
characterized by renal papillary necrosis.
Howard Hughes is thought to
have died from its use and it may have caused his mental turmoil.
1898 "Bayer Bible" published and sent to every doctor
Offering free samples is unprecedented and extremely
1905 Vicks VapoRub,
1906 Pure Food and Drug Act
is enacted requiring manufacturers to list their ingredients on packaging
labels and misleading advertising is restricted.
Exotic ingredients are promoted even
though most tonic effects come from the common cheap ingredients
bromides, sulphonal, trional,
veronal, coal tar,
sulphur, quinine, paraldehyde and
In 1938 manufacturers start testing
for safety before marketing.
It is not until 1962 that clinical
for effectiveness are legally required.
turned to cooking the data.
1910 The Flexner Report
written by Abraham Flexner is published under the aegis of the Carnegie Foundation.
This is the foundation of American allopathic medicine.
practice of the Negro doctor will be limited to his own race, which in its turn
will be cared for better by good Negro physicians than by poor white ones.
well-being of the Negro is not only of moment to the Negro.
million of them live in close contact with sixty million whites.
Not only does the Negro himself suffer from hookworm and
he communicates them to his
white neighbors, precisely as
the ignorant and unfortunate
white contaminates him.
Self-protection not less than
humanity offers weighty counsel in this matter;
The Negro must be
educated not only for his sake, but for ours.
He is, as far as the
human eye can see, a permanent factor in the nation." - Abraham
Note: Philanthropy for Flexner was self-serving as it was for
Henry Ford, the
Queen of England,
Consequences of the Flexner
No medical school can teach without the permission of the
The size of existing medical schools is subject to
Each state branch of the American Medical
Association has oversight over the
allopathic medical schools located
within the state.
Medical training, in
theory, adheres closely to the
and is thoroughly grounded in
human physiology and
biochemistry but is actually
learned through trial and error
Biochemistry, closely related to
molecular biology, is the
study of the molecular mechanisms by which genetic information encoded in DNA
is able to result in the processes of life.
The Carnegie Foundation succeeds in creating a single model of
medical education based on molecular biology.
Even though the report is over 100 years old many of its
recommendations are still active including those concerning the physician as a
"social instrument" whose
function is fast becoming social
and preventive, rather than individual and curative."
1911 General vaccination programs against
typhus begun in the US.
Typhoid vaccination produces significant impairments in several
measures of sleep continuity
Tunisia has been ruled by France since
1881 and neighboring Algeria has been ruled since the 1830 invasion of
Military conscription for Muslims in Algeria begins this
Under French rule French and Europeans are favored for advancement
over native Tunisians.
Civil disturbances are
ignited by the Zaytuni university students in Tunsia.
fire in the Jellaz Affair, a cemetary brawl after days of
fighting in the streets, involving Tunisians and newly arrived Italians
"Far from quietly assimilating into the French community in
Tunisia, some Italian settlers harboured
nationalist feelings." -
French declare martial
law blaming political agitators.
whooping cough (pertussis) vaccine amalgamated by two
French bacteriologists, Jules Bordet and Octave Gengou, for use in
After they grow
Pertussis bacteria in
large pots, they kill it with heat, mix it with
formaldehyde (used to embalm
bodies) and inject it into children.
Tunsia lead to the popular
Tram Boycott which begins after a tram driven by an Italian knocks down and
kills an eight-year-old Tunisian Arab child at Bab Saadoun.
In 82 years
1,556 Algerian Muslims have been granted French citizenship.
American Society for the Control of Cancer founded by 10 physicians with
5 investors capital stake.
From the very beginning the idea is to find a
way to control cancer.
No one seems concerned about
1914 Dr. C. Killick Millard, Medical Officer of Health
(Leicester, England) publishes The Vaccination Question.
city of Leicester, with a population of around 300,000 at the time, had for 30
years abandoned infantile vaccination and yet "miraculously" experienced an
"enormous decline" in
Millard is originally pro-vaccine.
experience with the population of the city of Leicester causes him to modify
The striking fact is that in Leicester, without infantile
vaccination, the decline has been greater than in most places.
Throughout the country smallpox continues to
decrease due to the reduction in vaccination.
"If it can be
shown that "sanitation", thoroughly carried out, is alone sufficient for the
effective control of smallpox in this country (as in Leicester), why inflict
universal vaccination with all its inseparable drawbacks?
there be any longer for compulsion?
It cannot be denied that
vaccination causes, in the amalgamation, very considerable injury to health,
most of it only temporary, but some permanent." - Dr. C. Killick
"One of the medical profession's greatest boasts is that it
eradicated smallpox through the use of the smallpox vaccine.
believed this claim for many years.
But it simply isn't true.
of the worst smallpox
epidemics of all time took place in England between 1870 and 1872
nearly two decades after compulsory vaccination was introduced.
this evidence that smallpox
vaccination didn't work the people of Leicester in the English midlands
refused to have the vaccine any more.
When the next smallpox epidemic
struck in the early 1890s
the people of
Leicester relied upon good
sanitation and a system of
There was only one death from smallpox in Leicester
during that epidemic.
contrast the citizens of
other towns (vaccinated) died in vast numbers.
drug companies may not
like it but the truth is that surveillance,
quarantine and better living
conditions got rid of smallpox not the smallpox vaccine." Dr.
The report of Dr. William Farr, (1807 1883),
Compiler of Statistics of the Registrar General of London and considered
to be the first developer of vital statistics, stated:
attained its maximum mortality after vaccination was introduced.
mean annual mortality for 10,000 population from 1850 to 1869 was at the rate
of 2.04, whereas after compulsory vaccination,
in 1871 the death rate was 10.24.
In 1872 the death rate was 8.33 and
this after the most laudable efforts to extend vaccination by legislative
The compulsory vaccination law was repealed in 1907.
By 1919, England and Wales had become one of the least vaccinated
countries and had only 28 deaths
from smallpox out of a population of 37.8 million people.
official figures of the Registrar General of England, 109 children under five
years in England and Wales died of smallpox between 1910 and
same period 270 died from vaccination.
Between 1934 and 1961 not one
smallpox death was recorded but 115 children under five years died from
1918 The 1918 Spanish Influenza is a
vaccine induced disease caused by extreme body poisoning from the
amalgamation of many different
vaccines in combination with attenuated bacterial
Althoug this epidemic is attributed to widespread use of
vaccines this information is suppressed.
After the World War I, vaccine
makers have an excess supply of vaccines (originally intended for soldiers to
treat yellow fever), as a result of the relatively unexpected short duration of
A huge vaccination campaign is drummed up to vaccinate the
population against "foreign illnesses".
Encephalitis lethargica, an
atypical form of encephalitis, reaches epidemic proportions from 1918 to
Spanish Flu Caused By Vaccinations
Military Experimental Vaccine Kills 50-100 Million People
[My uncle, Patrick
Hasty lost both his parents to the "Spanish Flu".]
Calmette-Guerin tuberculosis vaccine developed.
1922 British government appoints a committee to inquire into
"vaccine lymph", as it is noticed that the "glycerinated
calf lymph" used in
vaccinations cause death from "sleepy sickness"
"The vaccine material is
always collected on the sixth day.
The vaccinated area is washed with
warm water, and dried with clean soft cloths.
Each vesicle is now
clamped separately and the crust first removed with a lancet.
vesicle is then thoroughly scraped with the edge of a somewhat blunt lancet,
and the resultant mixture of lymph, epithelial tissue (skin), and blood is
transferred to a small nickel crucible set in a wide wooden stand on a table
close to the operator.
To the pultaceous (gruelly) mass contained in
the crucible there is added about an equal quantity of glycerine.
mixture of pulp and glycerine is triturated in a mixing machine driven by a
small electric motor.
The mixture, having thus been rendered thin and
homogeneous, is received in a clean sterilized nickel crucible placed beneath
With a view of
still further improving its
appearance and of removing any extraneous matters, such as hairs, it is
afterwards pressed through a small brass-wire sieve consisting of extremely
fine gauze into an agate mortar.
This is done by means of a bone spoon,
leaving on the surface of the gauze nothing but a very small quantity of
epithelial tissue together with a few hairs.
The mixture is further
triturated in the mortar with an agate pestle, and is then ready for filling
into the tubes in which it is distributed."
Epithelial pulp - 1 part ( 6.70%)
Glycerine - 7 parts
Boiled water - 7 parts" (46.65%)
1924 A Markush structure is a representation of chemical
structure used to indicate a group of related chemical
Markush structures are named after Eugene A. Markush, founder
of the Pharma Chemical Corporation in New Jersey.
Eugene filed US
Application 611,637 on January 9, 1923.
Markush was awarded the first
chemical patent from the US Patent Office for "Pyrazolone Dye and Process of
Making the Same" on August 26, 1924.
Strictly speaking the legal
requirements to obtain a patent for a Markush structure is essentially the same
as obtaining a patent in
the mechanical field.
Patents on pharmaceuticals were considered
unethical by the medical profession during most of the nineteenth-century.
Drug patent terms in the US were extended from 17 to 20 years in
1925 General vaccine programs against
tuberculosis began in
1928 Cases of
post-vaccination encephalitis force
creation of two Committees of Investigation in Britain.
1930 Max Theiler develops a yellow fever vaccine.
1932 Research (Young) indicates that neuritis is commonly
precipitated following vaccination with anti-tetanus, anti-pneumococcal, and
Danish observer Thorvald Madsen discovers the ability of the Pertussis vaccine
to kill infants without
two babies vaccinated immediately after birth died in a few minutes.
American observers report that children react to Pertussis vaccine with
fever, convulsions and collapse.
Vaccination programs against yellow fever
begin in the US.
Compulsory immunization instituted in
1962 Immunologist George Williamson
Auchinvole Dick speaks out at the British Medical Association annual
meeting against the smallpox vaccination program enjoined by the Minister of
Health, Enoch Powell.
"He (Enoch Powell) is asking for
a sacrifice of at least 20
babies a year." - George Dick
1963 American observer John
Enders creates a measles
Mass innoculations begin.
develop Atypical Measles Syndrome (AMS).
response to the "wild" measles
virus is "altered".
persistent symptoms lead to encephalopathy (brain
Atypical measles syndrome in adults: still around
measles syndrome: unusual hepatic, pulmonary, immunologic
1. The Italian community
of Tunisia: From Libyan Colonial Ambitions to the First World War; The
First World War from Tripoli to Addis Ababa (1911-1924) | Shiferaw Bekele ,
Uoldelul Chelati Dirar , Alessandro Volterra , et al.
This web site is not a commercial web site and
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new perspective with which to en❡a❡e Яeality to which its
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