stacks





14th century Traveling charlatans promote curing products and services through street performance.


“Doctors” “mounted the bench” (hence, the name: mountebank) , a stage, table or box, at fairs, street corners, in market squares or wherever they could find an audience, to convince the crowd of its desperate need for his medical miracle cures.

1449 King Henry VI grants Flemish-born John Utynam a patent for making stained glass.

Black's Law Dictionary defines a patent as:

“The exclusive right to make, use or sell an invention for a specified period.”

1552 King Edward VI grant Henry Smyth a patent for making Normandy glass.

1608 Mountebanks appear in Venice.

To draw the largest crowd and to keep its attention fixed as long as possible, the mountebanks resorted to a wide variety of entertainment including, among others, jugglers, musicians, magicians, and clowns.

Small scale spectacles alternated with their lectures that demonstrated how their tonics and services would surely cure any ailment his spectator had, whether he was aware of it or not.

1618 A Paris mountebank inspires the work of Molière.

In England, nostrum makers succeed in obtaining “Royal Patents” for their curing tonics and elixirs.

1683 Thomas Sydenham publishes Treatise on the Gout.

Sydenham argued gout was the result of “ease, voluptuousness, high living, and too free an use of wine and other spirituous liquors”.

He thought bleeding and purging could be counterproductive driving “peccant humours” further into the extremities.

Sydenham recommended a light diet, plenty of fluid, and regular doses of a digestive remedy he called bitters - distilled alcohol infused with watercress, horseradish, wormwood, and angelica root.

1698 First patent medicine - Epson Salts.

Magnesium sulfate is an inorganic salt with the formula MgSO4X where 0≤x≤7.

It is often encountered as the heptahydrate sulfate mineral epsomite, commonly called Epsom salt.

The overall global annual usage in the mid-1970s of the monohydrate was 2.3 million tons, of which the majority was used in agriculture.

1711 Sal Volitile patented.

Ammonium carbonate is a salt with the chemical formula (NH4)2CO3.

As it readily degrades to gaseous ammonia and carbon dioxide upon heating, it is used as a leavening agent and also as smelling salt.

1712 Richard Stoughton patents Stoughton's Elixir.

The first patent medicines to appear in America came from England.

In the eighteenth century medical theorists believed that disease could be driven from the body only by a substance as appalling as the illness.

The worse a medicine tasted or smelled, the greater its corrective power.

These foul-tasting, foul-smelling products had ingredients that had an effect on the body, thus giving the illusion of a cure in action.

Bateman's Drops, Dalby's Carminative, and Godfrey's Cordial contained the sedative opium.

Hooper's Pills purged the digestive system and induced menstruation.

British Oil and Steer's Opodeldoc were both liniments containing ammonia that irritated the skin.

1858 Erasmus Bond receives a patent for quinine Tonic.

Quinine-laced Tonic Water is one outcome of three centuries of military and medical efforts to overcome malaria.

The promotion of patent medicines was one of the first major products heavily displayed in the early advertising industry.

Numerous sales techniques were pioneered by patent medicine promoters.

Exotic ingredients were promoted even though the effects came from common drugs like opium, cannabis, cocaine, cloroform, chloral hydrate, bromides, sulphonal, trional, veronal, coal tar, turpentine, strychnine, mercury, arsenic, atropine, belladonna, hyoscyamus, coca, coffee, sulphur, quinine, paraldehyde and alcohol.

Patent medicines, sold at high prices, were made of cheap ingredients.

1879 Listerine™

1880 Milk of Magnesia™

1881 The Proprietary Association is founded by trade group of medicine producers along with a press dependent on remedy advertising fight bitterly against any type of regulation.

1905 Vicks VapoRub™, Ex-Lax™

1906 Pure Food and Drug Act is enacted requiring manufacturers to list their ingredients on packaging labels and misleading advertising is restricted.

In 1938 manufacturers start testing products for safety before marketing.

It is not until 1962 that clinical trials for effectiveness are legally required.



Flexner

Hygiene, Sanitation, Immunization, and Pestilential Diseases

Vaccine Research Scientist Sent to Prison for Vaccine Fraud



1910 The Flexner Report written by Abraham Flexner is published under the aegis of the Carnegie Foundation.

This is the foundation of American allopathic medicine.


"The practice of the Negro doctor will be limited to his own race, which in its turn will be cared for better by good Negro physicians than by poor white ones.

The physical well-being of the Negro is not only of moment to the Negro.

Ten million of them live in close contact with sixty million whites.

Not only does the Negro himself suffer from hookworm and tuberculosis; he communicates them to his white neighbors, precisely as the ignorant and unfortunate white contaminates him.

Self-protection not less than humanity offers weighty counsel in this matter; self- interest seconds philanthropy.

The Negro must be educated not only for his sake, but for ours.

He is, as far as the human eye can see, a permanent factor in the nation." - Abraham Flexner*





Consequences of the Flexner Report:

No medical school can teach without the permission of the state government.

The size of existing medical schools is subject to state regulation.

Each state branch of the American Medical Association has oversight over the allopathic medical schools located within the state.

Medical training, in theory, adheres closely to the scientific method and is thoroughly grounded in human physiology and biochemistry but is actually learned through trial and error experimentation.

Biochemistry, closely related to molecular biology, is the study of the molecular mechanisms by which genetic information encoded in DNA is able to result in the processes of life.

The Carnegie Foundation succeeds in creating a single model of medical education based on molecular biology.

Even though the report is over 100 years old many of its recommendations are still active including those concerning the physician as a "social instrument" whose function is fast becoming social and preventive, rather than individual and curative."

1911 General vaccination programs against typhus begun in the US.

Typhoid vaccination produces significant impairments in several measures of sleep continuity

Tunisia has been ruled by France since 1881 and neighboring Algeria has been ruled since the 1830 invasion of Algiers.

Military conscription for Muslims in Algeria begins this year.

Under French rule French and Europeans are favored for advancement over native Tunisians.

Civil disturbances are ignited by the Zaytuni university students in Tunsia.

French soldiers fire in the Jellaz Affair, a cemetary brawl after days of fighting in the streets, involving Tunisians and newly arrived Italians 'settlers'.

"Far from quietly assimilating into the French community in Tunisia, some Italian settlers harboured nationalist feelings." - Gabriele Montalbano1

French declare martial law blaming political agitators.


1912 First whooping cough (pertussis) vaccine amalgamated by two French bacteriologists, Jules Bordet and Octave Gengou, for use in Tunisia.

After they grow Pertussis bacteria in large pots, they kill it with heat, mix it with formaldehyde (used to embalm bodies) and inject it into children.

Demonstrations in Tunsia lead to the popular Tunis Tram Boycott which begins after a tram driven by an Italian knocks down and kills an eight-year-old Tunisian Arab child at Bab Saadoun.



In 82 years 1,556 Algerian Muslims have been granted French citizenship.





1913 American Society for the Control of Cancer founded by 10 physicians with 5 investors capital stake.

From the very beginning the idea is to find a way to control cancer.

No one seems concerned about underlying causation.

1914 Dr. C. Killick Millard, Medical Officer of Health (Leicester, England) publishes The Vaccination Question.

The city of Leicester, with a population of around 300,000 at the time, had for 30 years abandoned infantile vaccination and yet "miraculously" experienced an "enormous decline" in smallpox mortality.

Millard is originally pro-vaccine.

Empirical experience with the population of the city of Leicester causes him to modify his opinion.

The striking fact is that in Leicester, without infantile vaccination, the decline has been greater than in most places.

Throughout the country smallpox continues to decrease due to the reduction in vaccination.


"If it can be shown that "sanitation", thoroughly carried out, is alone sufficient for the effective control of smallpox in this country (as in Leicester), why inflict universal vaccination with all its inseparable drawbacks?

Moreover, what justification can there be any longer for compulsion?

It cannot be denied that vaccination causes, in the amalgamation, very considerable injury to health, most of it only temporary, but some permanent." - Dr. C. Killick Millard


"One of the medical profession's greatest boasts is that it eradicated smallpox through the use of the smallpox vaccine.

I myself believed this claim for many years.

But it simply isn't true.

One of the worst smallpox epidemics of all time took place in England between 1870 and 1872 – nearly two decades after compulsory vaccination was introduced.

After this evidence that smallpox vaccination didn't work the people of Leicester in the English midlands refused to have the vaccine any more.

When the next smallpox epidemic struck in the early 1890s the people of Leicester relied upon good sanitation and a system of quarantine.

There was only one death from smallpox in Leicester during that epidemic.

In contrast the citizens of other towns (who had been vaccinated) died in vast numbers.

Doctors and drug companies may not like it but the truth is that surveillance, quarantine and better living conditions got rid of smallpox – not the smallpox vaccine." – Dr. Vernon Coleman


The report of Dr. William Farr, (1807 – 1883), Compiler of Statistics of the Registrar General of London and considered to be the first developer of vital statistics, stated:

"Smallpox attained its maximum mortality after vaccination was introduced.

The mean annual mortality for 10,000 population from 1850 to 1869 was at the rate of 2.04, whereas after compulsory vaccination, in 1871 the death rate was 10.24.

In 1872 the death rate was 8.33 and this after the most laudable efforts to extend vaccination by legislative enactments."

The compulsory vaccination law was repealed in 1907.

By 1919, England and Wales had become one of the least vaccinated countries and had only 28 deaths from smallpox out of a population of 37.8 million people.

According to official figures of the Registrar General of England, 109 children under five years in England and Wales died of smallpox between 1910 and 1933.

In that same period 270 died from vaccination.

Between 1934 and 1961 not one smallpox death was recorded but 115 children under five years died from smallpox vaccination."





1918 The 1918 Spanish Influenza is a vaccine induced disease caused by extreme body poisoning from the amalgamation of many different vaccines.

Althoug this epidemic is attributed to widespread use of vaccines this information is suppressed.

After the World War I, vaccine makers have an excess supply of vaccines (originally intended for soldiers to treat yellow fever), as a result of the relatively unexpected short duration of the war.

A huge vaccination campaign is drummed up to vaccinate the population against "foreign illnesses".

Encephalitis lethargica, an atypical form of encephalitis, reaches epidemic proportions from 1918 to 1930.

Spanish Flu Caused By Vaccinations

Military Experimental Vaccine Kills 50-100 Million People

[My uncle, Patrick Hasty lost both his parents to the "Spanish Flu".]

1921 Bacille Calmette-Guerin tuberculosis vaccine developed.

1922 British government appoints a committee to inquire into "vaccine lymph", as it is noticed that the "glycerinated calf lymph" used in vaccinations cause death from "sleepy sickness"

"The vaccine material is always collected on the sixth day.

The vaccinated area is washed with warm water, and dried with clean soft cloths.

Each vesicle is now clamped separately and the crust first removed with a lancet.

The vesicle is then thoroughly scraped with the edge of a somewhat blunt lancet, and the resultant mixture of lymph, epithelial tissue (skin), and blood is transferred to a small nickel crucible set in a wide wooden stand on a table close to the operator.

To the pultaceous (gruelly) mass contained in the crucible there is added about an equal quantity of glycerine.

The mixture of pulp and glycerine is triturated in a mixing machine driven by a small electric motor.

The mixture, having thus been rendered thin and homogeneous, is received in a clean sterilized nickel crucible placed beneath the machine.

With a view of still further improving its appearance and of removing any extraneous matters, such as hairs, it is afterwards pressed through a small brass-wire sieve consisting of extremely fine gauze into an agate mortar.

This is done by means of a bone spoon, leaving on the surface of the gauze nothing but a very small quantity of epithelial tissue together with a few hairs.

The mixture is further triturated in the mortar with an agate pestle, and is then ready for filling into the tubes in which it is distributed."

Vaccine recipe:

Epithelial pulp - 1 part ( 6.70%)
Glycerine - 7 parts (46.65%)
Boiled water - 7 parts" (46.65%)

1924 A Markush structure is a representation of chemical structure used to indicate a group of related chemical compounds.

Markush structures are named after Eugene A. Markush, founder of the Pharma Chemical Corporation in New Jersey.

Eugene filed US Application 611,637 on January 9, 1923.

Markush was awarded the first chemical patent from the US Patent Office for “Pyrazolone Dye and Process of Making the Same” on August 26, 1924.

Strictly speaking the legal requirements to obtain a patent for a Markush structure is essentially the same as obtaining a patent in the mechanical field.

Patents on pharmaceuticals were considered unethical by the medical profession during most of the nineteenth-century.

Drug patent terms in the US were extended from 17 to 20 years in 1994.

1925 General vaccine programs against tuberculosis began in the US.

1928 Cases of post-vaccination encephalitis force creation of two Committees of Investigation in Britain.

1930 Max Theiler develops a yellow fever vaccine.

1932 Research (Young) indicates that neuritis is commonly precipitated following vaccination with anti-tetanus, anti-pneumococcal, and anti-meningitis serums.





1933 Danish researcher Thorvald Madsen discovers the ability of the Pertussis vaccine to kill infants without warning (SID).

He reports two babies vaccinated immediately after birth died in a few minutes.

American researchers report that children react to Pertussis vaccine with fever, convulsions and collapse.

Vaccination programs against yellow fever begin in the US.


Compulsory immunization instituted in Geneva.

1962 Immunologist George Williamson Auchinvole Dick speaks out at the British Medical Association annual meeting against the smallpox vaccination program enjoined by the Minister of Health, Enoch Powell.

"He (Enoch Powell) is asking for a sacrifice of at least 20 babies a year." - George Dick

1963 American researcher John Enders creates a measles vaccine.

Mass innoculations begin.

Vaccinated children develop Atypical Measles Syndrome (AMS).

Studies suggest response to the "wild" measles virus is "altered".

Sever persistent symptoms lead to encephalopathy (brain damage.)


Atypical measles syndrome in adults: still around

Atypical measles syndrome: unusual hepatic, pulmonary, immunologic aspects



1. The Italian community of Tunisia: From Libyan Colonial Ambitions to the First World War; The First World War from Tripoli to Addis Ababa (1911-1924) | Shiferaw Bekele , Uoldelul Chelati Dirar , Alessandro Volterra , et al.



chemical warfare

unique library index

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