6000 BC Ugarit foundations are laid in the
1800 BC Ebla and Ugarit are
under Egyptian hegemony.
population of Ugarit is roughly 7635 people.
"Recent archeological digs
have provided evidence that Jerusalem was a big and fortified
city already in 1800 BC.
Findings show that the sophisticated water
system heretofor attributed to the followers of Akhenaten the Heretic pre-dated them by eight
centuries and was even more sophisticated than imagined.
Reich, who directed the excavation along with Eli Shuikrun, said the entire
system was built as a single complex by Canaanites in the Middle Bronze Period,
around 1800 BC." - The Jewish Bulletin, July 31, 1998
1450 to 1220 BC The people of Ugarit were the Canaanites,
precursors to the Phoenicians.
Recognizing human speech consisted of
only a finite number of sounds they devised 30 symbols from which alphabets of
phonetic languages are derived.
The style of writing at Ugarit is
alphabetic cuneiform, a unique blending of two alphabetic script, like Hebrew,
and cuneiform, like Akkadian.
An evolved mythology parallel that of
Enûma Elish can be found in the
Baal cycle recovered in the Canaanite
city of Ugarit which include "Legend of
Keret", "Legend of Danel", "Myth of
Baal-Aliyan" and "Death of Baal".
Ugaritic literature is composed in
Qinah metre, bi and tri colas, and all of the poetic
tools found in the Septuagint are found in
Ugarit is at its height politically, religiously and
BC The land known as Canaan was situated in the territory of the
southern Levant, which today encompasses
Israel, the West Bank and
Jordan, and the southern portions of
Many names have been
given to this area including Palestine, Eretz-Israel,
Bilad es-Shem, the Holy Land
The earliest known name for this area was
"When the Lord your God has cut off the nations whose land the
Lord your God is giving you, and you dispossess them and dwell in their cities
and in their houses." - Deuteronomy 19:1
Cult of Yahweh informed tribes
defeated the Canaanite kings in battle they simply took over preexisting
"I have given you a land for which you did not labor
and cities which you did not build, and you dwell in them; you eat of the
vineyards and olive groves which you did not plant" - Joshua 24:13
was no need to build new cities, Yaweh delivered the existing cities into their
the chief god at Ugarit.
El is called the "Father of Men",
"Creator", and "Creator of the Creation".
Other deities worshiped at
Ugarit were El Shaddai, El Elyon, and El Berith.
tribe of Abraham worshiped
these variations of 'Creator' along with, and sometimes instead of,
This biblical denunciation of the Canaanite gods in
understandable in the light of the Ugaritic texts, for at Ugarit these were the
very gods worshiped.
Psalms were originally Ugaritic or Canaanite hymns
to El which were adopted by the followers of Abraham, much like the American
National Anthem was set to a beer hall
tune with lyrics by Francis Scott Key.
In Psalms and the Ugaritic
texts the very same attributes for which Yahweh is acclaimed are the same for
which El is acclaimed.
Among the inhabitants of Ugarit,
Yahweh was viewed as a son of El.
The names of
El Shaddai, El Elyon, and El
Berith are applied to Yahweh by the
writers of the
The Hebrew theologians of the
Cult of Yaweh adopted the
titles of the Canaanite gods and attributed them to Yahweh in an effort to
assimilate and synthesize culture in a manner no different than the
Babylonians and the
important of the Canaanite lesser gods were;
the god of the sea, and Mot,
the god of death.
In the Cult of
Yaweh, Hohkma is the female
counterpart of Yahweh.
"When they did evolve, when the ancient
Hebrew tribes put together their notion of Yahweh by combining YHVH and the
Elohim gods ("Elohim" is plural), and borrowing from other religions, they put
together a Yahweh from which, in some important ways,
we are still
Biblical scholars are clear
Yahweh evolved from a tribal
chief, and has always kept much of the
authoritarian character of
that ancient tribal chief.
The covenant between Yahweh and
his people was based on an earlier Hittite treaty between a ruler and his
That covenant says:
"I'll be your ruler and you will be my
I'll protect you
if you obey, and punish
you if you disobey."
That's the attitude that
still lets Western believers move way too effortlessly to
persecuting or murdering those who believe
It's been harder to shrug Yahweh off as irrelevant,
because its followers will kill you -
as many martyrs throughout
history have discovered the hard and painful way." - Davidson
1213 BC Merneptah Stele discovered in
1896 by Flinders Petrie and first translated by Wilhelm Spiegelberg.
bulk of the inscription deals with Merneptah's victory over the Libyans
"Canaan has been plundered into every sort of woe:
Gezer has been captured;
Yano'am is made
Israel is laid waste and his seed is
Septuagint Baal is
named 76 times.
The Septuagint prophets protested
constantly against the worship of Baal,
Yahweh as a warrior god of the
desert and so when they arrived in Canaan they thought it only proper to
adopt Baal, God of Fertility.
The central Ugaritic myth is the legend of
Baal's enthronement as
In the story, Baal is killed by Mot in
the Fall and remains dead until the Spring of the year when he is
reborn and re-enthroned as king.
celebrates the enthronement of
As in the Ugaritic myth, the purpose of enthronement is to
Yahweh overcomes death by
continuously acting to bestow life.
The major metaphorical
subconscious difference between the Ugaritic myth and the biblical hymns is
that the kingship of Yahweh is eternal while the kingship of Baal
is interrupted every year by his death
in the Fall.
When the God
of Fertility dies in the Fall, the vegetation dies; and then the vegetation is
reborn in the Spring to replenish Earth.
Israel and Ugarit both
practiced a yearly ritual known as the sending out of the "scapegoats";
one for god and
one for a demon.
The Cult of Yaweh sent a goat
into the wilderness for Azazel, a demon, and a goat into the wilderness for
This rite is known as a "eliminatory" rite; that is,
corruption, in this case communal
sin, is placed on the head of the goat and it is sent away.
the communal sin is removed from the community.
"Aaron is to lay
both hands on the head of the live goat and confess over it all the
wickedness and rebellion of the
Israelites - all their sins - and put them on the goat's head. Aaron shall send
the goat away into the desert in the care of a man appointed for the task. The
goat will carry on itself all their sins to a solitary place; and the man shall
release it into the desert." - Leviticus 16:21-22
The same ritual was
performed at Ugarit; with one notable difference -
at Ugarit a woman priest
was involved in the ritual as well.
The rituals performed in Ugaritic
worship involved a great
deal of entheogens and sexual
performing the reenactment of fertilization the worshipers were demonstrating
to Baal how to send rain for the cannabis crops.
and semen were seen in ancient time as
of the same
essence, both produced
Worshipers in fertility religions typically behaved in this
Cult of Yaweh priests were
forbidden to partake of entheogens while performing rituals and
females were barred from the precincts of the
patriarchal approach of severe separation of self from emotion as opposed
compassionate matriarchal approach of communal passion.
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