6000 BC Ugarit foundations are laid in the Neolithic
1800 BC Ebla and Ugarit are under
The population of Ugarit is roughly 7635
"Recent archeological digs have provided evidence that
Jerusalem was a big and
fortified city already in 1800 BC.
Findings show that the
sophisticated water system heretofor attributed to the followers of
Akhenaten the Heretic pre-dated them by
eight centuries and was even more sophisticated than imagined.
Ronny Reich, who directed the excavation along with Eli Shuikrun, said the
entire system was built as a single complex by Canaanites in the Middle Bronze
Period, around 1800 BC." - The Jewish Bulletin, July 31,
1450 to 1220 BC The people of Ugarit were the Canaanites,
precursors to the Phoenicians.
Recognizing human speech consisted of
only a finite number of sounds they devised 30 symbols from which alphabets of
phonetic languages are derived.
The style of writing at Ugarit is
alphabetic cuneiform, a unique blending of two alphabetic script, like Hebrew,
and cuneiform, like Akkadian.
An evolved mythology parallel that of
Enûma Elish can be found in the Baal
cycle recovered in the Canaanite city of Ugarit which include "Legend of
Keret", "Legend of Danel", "Myth of
Baal-Aliyan" and "Death of Baal".
Ugaritic literature is composed in
metre, bi and tri colas, and all of the poetic tools found in the
Septuagint are found in
Ugarit is at its height politically, religiously and
BC The land known as Canaan was situated in the territory of the
southern Levant, which today encompasses
Israel, the West Bank and
Gaza, Jordan, and the
southern portions of Syria
names have been given to this area including
Palestine, Eretz-Israel, Bilad
es-Shem, the Holy Land and
The earliest known name for this area was "Canaan."
the Lord your God has cut off the nations whose land the Lord your God is
giving you, and you dispossess them and dwell in their cities and in their
houses." - Deuteronomy 19:1
Cult of Yahweh informed tribes
defeated the Canaanite kings in battle they simply took over preexisting
"I have given you a land for which you did not labor
and cities which you did not build, and you dwell in them; you eat of the
vineyards and olive groves which you did not plant" - Joshua 24:13
was no need to build new cities, Yaweh delivered
the existing cities.
El was the chief god at
El is called
the "Father of Men", "Creator", and "Creator of the Creation".
deities worshiped at Ugarit were El Shaddai, El Elyon, and El
The tribe of
Abraham worshiped these variations of 'Creator' along with, and sometimes
instead of, Yahweh.
This biblical denunciation of the Canaanite gods in
understandable in the light of the Ugaritic texts, for at Ugarit these were the
very gods worshiped.
Psalms were originally Ugaritic or Canaanite hymns
to El which were adopted by the followers of Abraham, much like the American
National Anthem was set to a beer hall
tune with lyrics by Francis Scott Key.
In Psalms and the Ugaritic
texts the very same attributes for which Yahweh is acclaimed are the same for
which El is acclaimed.
Among the inhabitants of Ugarit,
Yahweh was viewed as a son of El.
The names of
El Shaddai, El Elyon, and
El Berith are applied to Yahweh by the
writers of the
The Hebrew theologians of the
Cult of Yaweh adopted the
titles of the Canaanite gods and attributed them to Yahweh in an effort to
assimilate and synthesize culture in a manner no different than the
Babylonians and the
The most important
of the Canaanite lesser gods were;
the god of the sea, and Mot,
the god of death.
In the Cult of Yaweh,
Hohkma is the female
counterpart of Yahweh.
"When they did evolve, when the ancient
Hebrew tribes put together their notion of Yahweh by combining YHVH and the
Elohim gods ("Elohim" is plural), and borrowing from other religions, they put
together a Yahweh from which, in some important ways,
we are still
Biblical scholars are clear
Yahweh evolved from a tribal
chief, and has always kept much of the
authoritarian character of
that ancient tribal chief.
The covenant between Yahweh and
his people was based on
an earlier Hittite treaty between a ruler and his subjects.
"I'll be your ruler and you will be my
I'll protect you
if you obey, and punish
you if you disobey."
That's the attitude that still lets Western
believers move way too effortlessly to persecuting or murdering those who believe
It's been harder to shrug Yahweh off as irrelevant,
because its followers will kill you -
as many martyrs throughout
history have discovered the hard and painful way." - Davidson
1213 BC Merneptah Stele discovered in
1896 by Flinders Petrie and first translated by Wilhelm Spiegelberg.
bulk of the inscription deals with Merneptah's victory over the Libyans
"Canaan has been plundered into every sort of woe:
Gezer has been captured;
Yano'am is made
Israel is laid waste and his seed is
Septuagint Baal is
named 76 times.
The Septuagint prophets protested
constantly against the worship of Baal, God of Fertility.
viewed Yahweh as a warrior god of the
desert and so when they arrived in Canaan they thought it only proper to
adopt Baal, God of Fertility.
The central Ugaritic myth is the legend of
Baal's enthronement as
In the story, Baal is killed by Mot in the Fall and remains
dead until the Spring of the year when he is reborn and re-enthroned as king.
celebrates the enthronement of
As in the Ugaritic myth, the purpose of enthronement is to
Yahweh overcomes death by
continuously acting to bestow life.
The major metaphorical
subconscious difference between the Ugaritic myth and the biblical hymns is
that the kingship of Yahweh is eternal while the kingship of Baal
is interrupted every year by his death
in the Fall.
When the God
of Fertility dies in the Fall, the vegetation dies; and then the vegetation is
reborn in the Spring to replenish Earth.
Israel and Ugarit both
practiced a yearly ritual known as the sending out of the "scapegoats";
one for god and
one for a demon.
The Cult of Yaweh sent a goat
into the wilderness for Azazel, a demon, and a goat into the wilderness for
This rite is known as a "eliminatory" rite; that is,
corruption, in this case communal
sin, is placed on the head of the goat and it is sent away.
the communal sin is removed from the community.
"Aaron is to lay
both hands on the head of the live goat and confess over it all the
wickedness and rebellion of the
Israelites - all their sins - and put them on the goat's head. Aaron shall send
the goat away into the desert in the care of a man appointed for the task. The
goat will carry on itself all their sins to a solitary place; and the man shall
release it into the desert." - Leviticus 16:21-22
The same ritual was
performed at Ugarit; with one notable difference -
at Ugarit a woman priest
was involved in the ritual as well.
The rituals performed in Ugaritic
worship involved a great
deal of entheogens and sexual
performing the reenactment of fertilization the worshipers were demonstrating
to Baal how to send rain for the cannabis crops.
semen were seen in ancient time as
of the same
essence, both produced
Worshipers in fertility religions typically behaved in this
Cult of Yaweh
priests were forbidden to partake of entheogens while performing rituals
and females were barred from the precincts of
approach of severe separation of self from emotion as opposed to
compassionate matriarchal approach of communal passion.
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