Literal Physical Truth of the New Testament
The books of the New Testament were not all
written; at the same time; in the order they appear; in the same
All Christian documents in existence before the 4th
century are on papyrus.
Papyrus is fragile, only fragments of these
works have been preserved.
Before the invention of the printing press
all documents had to be copied by hand, a laborious process that invited
variations: misspellings, altered wording, grammatical corrections, stylistic
improvements, insertions, omissions, etc.
Many New Testament versions
have marginal notes added.
These marginalia were often copied into the
main text of later versions.
No two New Testaments written before the
15th century are identical !
20th century versions of the New Testament
are primarily based on parchment uncial codices of the 4th through the 9th
Many of the earliest of these, like Sinaiticus, have
undergone extensive "correction" by later scribes.
parchment uncial codices of the 4th through the 9th
century5th century Codex
Alexandrinus is largely an Alexandrian witness and the oldest text of the
A passage - "All things came into being through him;
and apart from him no single thing came into being. In him was life; and the
life was the light of men."
5th to 7th
century Codex Washingtonensis or Codex Freerianus
paleographers have deduced that the original scribe corrected some of his own
errors, followed by another who made revisions. Finally, two later hands made a
few additional changes.
Codex Washingtonensis is variegated in
its representation and believed to be copied from one that had been pieced
together out of fragments of several manuscripts. Readings representative of
all of the major text types can be found in this manuscript.
- "All things came into being through him; and apart from him no single thing
came into being. What has come into being in him (is or was) life. And the life
was the light of humanity."
Codex Bezae: the left hand page is the Greek and the right hand side is
Latin. As many as nine correctors worked on the manuscript between the sixth
and twelfth century.
"All things came into being through him; and apart
from him nothing came into being. What has come into being in him is life. And
the life was the light of humanity."
Alcuin of York during the reign of Charlemagne attempts to purify the corrupted
text. This correction is the basis for the Paris edition that was widely
disseminated among the clergy in northwestern Europe.
12th or 13th century Codex 666 reads as follows:
A passage - "All things came into being through him; and apart from him
no single thing came into being that has come into being. In him was life; and
the life was the light of men."
Corrected passage - "All things came into
being through him; and apart from him no single thing came into being. What has
come into being was life in him; and the life was the light of
15th century Printing press invented. The
Vulgate, as produced by Gutenberg, is not entirely without error as the several
editions of the first printed work vary one from the other.
Initially the Hebrews resisted
the writing down of Mosiac
It was understood that the
Oral Tradition was less likely to
have inserted ponerological
elements due to the evolution of the definitions of words.
Tradition taught each child orally all the knowledge previously
revealed by the Hand of God.
This was the tradition of
Jesus the Tannaim who taught using the Oral Tradition.
Hebrew attitudes toward translations of Hebrew
scripture evolved over time.
Alexander the III of Macedonia
conquered Egypt he introduced Hellenism
which swept the world up in an epileptic fit.
Hellenistic elements to the evolved
particularly when he brought the stolen stone idol to Eygpt.
Ptolemy had taken a great many captives, both from the mountainous parts of
Judea, and from the places about Jerusalem and Samaria; and the places near
mount Gerizzim; he led them all into Egypt, and settled them at Alexandria gave
them equal privileges of citizens with the Macedonians themselves and required
of them to take their oaths, that they would keep their fidelity to the
posterity." - Antiquities of the Jews, Book XII
By the time of the birth of Jesus
the Hebrews of Alexandria had built a scriptural edifice now known as the
Septuagint which was later translated into the Greek
2nd century BC Readings in the
synagogues must be interpreted from Hebrew
into Aramaic for the local people to understand.
Talmudic injunction by Rabbi Simon
ben Gamaliel said that Greek was the only language into which
the Torah could be
The Septuagint is the Greek
'according to the seventy' for the group of Hebrew scholars that translated the
Septuagint into Greek.
The Septuagint found widespread use in
Hellenistic culture as well as Jerusalem which had become
a cosmopolitan city.
factors finally led most Hebrews to abandon the Septuagint including:
Christians favored the
Greek scribes were not subject to the same rigid rules
imposed on Hebrew scribes;
gradual decline of the Greek language among
Hebrews after they flee the Greek-speaking Roman
Empire into the Aramaic-speaking
Persian Empire when Jerusalem
is destroyed by the Romans.
AD The Hebrew historian Josephus canonical list of sacred scriptures has
three parts: five books of the Torah, thirteen
books of the prophets, and four books of hymns.
Sapiential Books or
Books of Wisdom is a term used in biblical studies to refer to a subset of the
books in the Septuagint version.
There are seven of these books, namely
the books of Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, the Book of Wisdom, the Song
of Songs (Song of Solomon), and Sirach.
The Testament of Job is a book
written in the 1st century BC.
The author of Wisdom of Solomon was
an Alexandrian Jew
during the silent persecution
initiated in Egypt under Caesar Augustus.
The Wisdom of Sirach is a
work of ethical teachings written by the Jewish scribe Shimon ben Yeshua ben
Eliezer ben Sira of Jerusalem approximately 175 BC.
includes the presence of
and Aramaisms which point to a date no earlier than 450 BC and no later than
180 BC, when Eliezer ben Sira quotes from it.
The early Christian Church
used the Septuagint since most of its earliest members were Greek-speaking and
because the Messianic passages
most clearly pointed to Jesus as the Messiah.
Jerome of Stridon began the translation of
the Vulgate into Latin he started with the Septuagint.
Even when Latin,
Armenian and other
translations appeared, the
Septuagint continued to be used by the Greek-speaking portion of the Christian
Scribes of the New
Testament, also written in Greek, quoted from the Septuagint frequently,
though not exclusively, when relating prophesies and history from the
Orthodox Church still prefers to use the Septuagint as the basis for
translating the Old Testament into other languages, and the
Greek Orthodox Church
(which has no need for translation) continues to use
it in its liturgy even today.
Many modern Catholic translations of the
Bible, while using the Masoretic text as their basis, employ the Septuagint to
decide between different possible translations of the Hebrew text whenever the
latter is unclear, corrupt, or ambiguous.
The Greek of the Septuagint has many
idioms and phrases based on
Hebrew, and the grammatical phenomenon known as attraction is common there.
Some parts of it have been described as "Hebrew in Greek words".
However, other sections show an
Hebrew idiom, so that the literal
translation provided makes
The translators usually, but not always, employed one and
the same Greek word for one Hebrew word whenever it occurs.
Septuagint can be called a mostly concordant
However, as in most translations of any literary
work, often more than one Hebrew word gets
translated into one and
the same Greek word, removing some nuance from the text.
Vulgate 382 Emperor
Theodosius I orders Jerome of Stridon
under the direction of Pope Damasus
I and the Council of Rome to
produce the Latin Vulgate.
The Vulgate is written in everyday Latin,
versio vulgata, as opposed to Ciceronian Latin of which
Jerome of Stridon was a
Roman Catholicism united Western Europe, under
the Pope, for over a thousand years until Martin Luther translates the Bible into
The closest equivalent in English to
the Latin Vulgate is the King James Version which shows
a marked influence from
the Vulgate in the vigorous rhythm of its
prose and poetry.
The Vulgate, designed to be easier to understand,
was directly translated from Hebrew rather than the Greek Septuagint.
Jerome of Stridon was responsible for at least
three slightly different versions of the Vulgate.
Vulgate was the first, soon replaced by later versions except in Britain, where
it continued to be used until the Norman Conquest in 1066.
Gallicana Vulgate was produced a few years later with revisions.
Hispana Vulgate is largely identical to the Romana Vulgate except for the book
of Psalms, which
Jerome of Stridon translated from the
Hebrew for this version.
Old Latin Vulgate The Latin Bible used before the Vulgate is usually referred to as
the Vetus Latina, or Old Latin Bible, or occasionally the Old Latin Vulgate.
The Old Latin Vulgate remained in use in some circles even after the
Vulgate translation of Jerome of Stridon
became the accepted standard throughout the Roman Catholic Church.
Gauls continued to prefer the Old Latin Vulgate for
The Old Latin Vulgate was not translated by a single
individual or institution, nor even uniformly edited. Each book varies in
quality of translation and style.
The Old Latin Vulgate books were
translated from Greek, not from the Hebrew Septuagint as each book varies in
quality of translation and
Church of Rome strives to refute the doctrines of Protestantism,
the Vulgate is reaffirmed in the Council of Trent as the sole authorized text
of the Bible.
To reinforce this declaration, an attempt is made to
standardize the spelling and overall text of the Vulgate out of the countless
editions written during the Middle Ages.
Pope Sixtus V (1585-90) produces the Sistine Vulgate.
1592 Clement VIII (1592-1605) produces the Clementine
Vulgate which has been the official
Bible of the Roman Catholic Church until the 1960s, when worship in
vernacular languages was first permitted.
Catholic only religious truth
holds the place of Christ on Earth
and wine physically transubstantiated
Sale of indulgences to
Dogma to be clearly defined
List of forbidden Protestant translations
Mass to be in Latin using the
Forbidden: Simony, Nepotism,
Seminaries to train priests
'properly' in the art of flogging
1907 Nova Vulgata
commissioned in by Pope Pius X of the Benedictine Monastery in Rome, though
many decades would pass before it would be completed.
difference between the Nova Vulgata and the Vulgata Clementina is that it takes
account of the modern textual criticism.
There are a number of changes
where the modern scholars felt that Jerome of
Stridon had failed to
grasp the meaning of the original languages.
Spelling reflects a
more Classical leaning than the Renaissance spelling of the Clementine
Nova Vulgata does not contain some books found in some
editions of the Vulgate - for example the 3rd and 4th Book of Ezra.
Nova Vulgata is currently the official Latin version published and
approved by the Roman Catholic Church.
The Nova Vulgata has not been widely embraced by conservative
Catholics, as it sounds unfamiliar compared to the Clementine, a fact common in
the history of the Bible as new translations attempt to supplant older, more
The Stuttgart Vulgate is published by the German
BibleSociety (Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft), based in Stuttgart.
edition, Biblia Sacra Vulgata, the German BibleSociety seeks to reproduce the
original, pure Vulgate text that Jerome of
Stridon produced 1,600 years ago.
The Stuttgart Vulgate attempts,
through critical comparison of important, historical editions of the Vulgate,
to achieve the original text, cleansed of the errors of a millennium and a
The main critical source for the Stuttgart Vulgate is
Codex Amiatinus, the highly-esteemed 8th century, one-volume manuscript of the
whole Latin Bible produced in England, regarded as the best medieval witness to
original text of Jerome of
your point of view, one of the beauties or one of the problems with the Bible
is that, by carefully picking and choosing your passages, you can get anything
you want out of it.
Using passages from the canonical gospels,
scholars, theologians, and lay alike have
'proven' that Jesus was a
Pharisee, an Essene,
a revolutionary Zaddikim intent
on overthrowing Roman occupation, a Kabbalist, a
Taoist and even a supply-side
Of course others have also found passages to repudiate all
of these assertions and prove that
Jesus of Nazareth wore
three hats - Tannaim /
Therapeutae and dined
with the Essenes.
Over time, as we all know, everything decays or becomes corrupt.
This would have been the case with 1) the original sayings of Jesus, 2)
the original writings about Jesus and 3) the copies of texts of
We have no way
of knowing exactly what changes were made and what was added to the original
texts dealing with Jesus but research
suggests that the original texts were simply the statements and sermons of Jesus
which were later elaborated upon.
Thousands of men spent their entire
lives redefining the religion which we now call "Christianity."
was much debate about who wrote what and what was true as
opposed to what was
heretical even in the first century after
the birth of Jesus. The process of selection and status gradually evolved, and
even the Bible itself tells us that what we currently have is not
the full story or
a complete image.
One generation removed from
the living Jesus
gnostic thought began to build
Mystery upon the evolving myth of
Jesus the Tekton.
Mystical Gnosticism is simply a
religion of redemption
- wisdom of truth gained through
the coupling of experience with
Clement of Alexandria used the term 'gnostic' to describe anyone
who had penetrated deeper into the Gnostic
The Gnostic universally heralded
Jesus the Tekton as the one who brought
recognition of Knowledge of the
"In Gnostic terms the body's site of power has been referred
to as those of the 'sleepers' and 'wakers.' The 'sleepers' being those whose
conscious self has yet to break through the layers of the body's social
conditioning. The spiritual-somatic experience has been seen as a threat to
hierarchical societies because it exists beyond their bounds of power. This is
one reason why ecstatic experiences - whether through spiritual or other means
- have been suppressed, outlawed, and discredited by religions and mainstream
institutions alike. Ecstatic experiences that can break down human thinking
patterns and conditioning structures are unnerving for institutions of
social-political power. How can you control, regulate, and discipline a
body/energy/experience that has no physical location?" - Kingsley L.
Titus Flavius Clemens Titus Flavius Clemens, Clement of Alexandria, succeeded his
mentor, Pantaenus, as head of the catechetical school at Alexandria to become
the leader of the Christian community in Alexandria, Egypt for the last two
decades of the 2nd century after the birth of Jesus.
Clemens emphasized the permanent importance of the use of philosophy to
understand the relation between knowledge and
knowledge of the essentials, knowledge allows the believer to
penetrate deeply into the understanding of what he actually believes and by so
doing perfect his faith.
In order to attain the "Faith of Knowledge," to find the
Truth, which is so much higher than the mere "faith of conjecture," or simple
reception of a truth on authority, philosophy is permanently
To judge those who professed esoteric knowledge or the Truth all that was
needed, Titus Flavius Clemens argued correctly,
check to see if they lived a moral life
which was the test of real wisdom.
Clement of Alexandria championed the ideal of
Titus Flavius Clemens characterization of
the real Christian as an
intellectual whose life is a moral example for others
development of the monastic ideal.
persecution of Alexandrian Christians, Titus
Flavius Clemens found refuge in Jerusalem. Titus Flavius Clemens was succeeded
at Alexandria by his brilliant protégé, Origen.
Catholics attempted early on to stamp out any train of thought,
to destroy all branches of the gnostic
mysteries and destroy any text of the
Christian religion which did not strictly adhere to Roman Catholic
After the gnostic confrontation and until
the Reformation, the Roman Catholic
Church was the overwhelmingly dominant
force in Christianity.
rigid, entrenched mentality of
Catholic orthodoxy must be taken into account in any reasonable examination
of the Christian religion.
Schisms, dissensions, and new ideas were
crushed by a pronouncement of spiritual death (excommunication) or
physical death (inquisition/crusade).
Dogma is not to be challenged; dogma is
inflexible to change:
God is supernatural
(outside of nature); God is three-in-one, (the Father,
the Son and the
Holy Spirit); God requires
humans to worship him as
a human Emperor (descended God) on
Earth is worshiped; that something called the soul (which exists outside of
nature) is condemned by God to a place
called hell unless one believes in and follows the religious dogma of
whichever sect or cult one has joined
or been born into; that to some, belief in
their sect or cults religious dogma guarantees one a secure position in the
nether realm of heaven; that to others good works and belief are necessary
to gain admission to heaven, and that to still others
good works, belief and a following
of religious law is the only way to gain admission to
Catholic Church needed then and needs now
to control the information
made available to the public about
Without a uniform dogmatized religion the Roman
Catholics realized they would lose control of adherents.
It was from this Roman Catholic Church that the
ultimate lists of approved, canonical, and heretical texts issued.
Even within what is now the Roman Catholic Church there has always been
The Synoptic Gospels, Gospel of Matthew, Gospel of Mark
and Gospel of Luke, order of creation was debated and revised.
Gospel of John was considered heretical and was added later.
Revelation was considered heretical and then added later.
first commentary made on the Gospel of John was by the
gnostics Ptolemy and
Heracleon, as quoted by Irenaeus and Origen. The Gospel of John is
a highly intellectual account of Jesus' life
which would have required a good level of education and was most likely penned
by John the Presbyter (priest)
as opposed to John the Apostle who was
an uneducated fisherman. John the Presbyter most likely penned
Revelation as well.
Irenaeus insisted there could be only one
orthodox (literally, "straight-thinking") church
outside of which "there was
Christian writers before 150 years after the
birth of Jesus do not generally refer to any document (including the canonical
gospels) as their source for Jesus'
The Synoptics were originally anonymous, and
decisions of authorship came about in the 2nd century based on
Axial Age scribbling down verbal
utterances of the Oral Tradition -
axioms, adages and proverbs - of
Pythagoras became widespread
with the use of written language.
The Gospel of Thomas, which was
discovered less than a century ago,
is evidence that such collections originally did
The idea that the Greek
gospels are based on primitive collection of sayings (Greek: logia) goes back
to the very first commentary on the gospels. Early in the 2nd century after the
birth of Jesus, Papias
reported that Matthew compiled the logia of Christ which others interpreted as
best they could. Papias penned, a 5 volume commentary on
the sayings of Jesus from the accounts
of second generation church leaders, labeled an Exposition of the Oracles of
The Exposition of the Oracles of the Lord to this
date provide the earliest record of the composition of the gospels. Papias'
work is among the many texts claimed to be known to ancient Christians that
were destroyed by the Roman Catholic Church.
From a fragment
from the Exposition of the Oracles of the Lord by Papias we learn that;
Papias affirms that he received the sayings of the apostles from those
who accompanied them, and he moreover asserts that he heard with his own ears
Aristion and the presbyter John. Papias mentions them
frequently by name, and in his
writings gives their traditions. Papias relates other miraculous deeds, stating
that he acquired the knowledge of them from
also relates that he had received a wonderful narrative from the daughters of
the Apostle Philip in Hierapolis. Papias relates that a dead man was raised to
life in his day. Papias also mentions another miracle relating to Justus,
surnamed Barsabas, how Justus swallowed a deadly poison, and received no
harm, on account of the
Grace of Christ.
down other things as coming to him from unwritten tradition, strange parables
and instructions of Jesus - and some other things of a more fabulous nature.
of these predicts that a millennium after the Jesus resurrection from death,
when the personal reign of Jesus will be established on this Earth.
Papias moreover hands down, in his own writing, other narratives given
by the previously mentioned Aristion of Jesus' sayings, and the traditions of
the presbyter John.
Papias has given in the
following words regarding the Gospel of
"And the presbyter said this: Mark having become the
interpreter of Peter, wrote down accurately whatsoever he
remembered. It was not, however, in
exact order that he related the sayings or deeds of Jesus. For he neither heard
Jesus nor accompanied Him. But afterwards, as I said, he accompanied Peter, who
accommodated his instructions to the necessities, but with no intention of
giving a regular narrative of Jesus' sayings. Wherefore Mark made no
mistake in thus writing some things as
he remembered them. For of one thing
he took especial care, not to omit anything he had heard, and not to put
anything fictitious into the statements."
regard to the Gospel of Matthew,
Papias has made the following statement:
"Matthew put together the
oracles in the Hebrew language, and each one interpreted them as best he could.
The same writer used proofs from the First
Epistle of John, and from the Epistle of Peter in like
Papias also gives another story of a woman who was accused of
many sins before Jesus, which is to be found in
the Gospel according to the Hebrews.
This fragment of the Exposition
of the Oracles of the Lord by Papias
translated by the Reverend
Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson. Excerpted from Volume I of The
Ante-Nicene Fathers (Reverend Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson, editors);
American Edition copyright © 1885
In the first few centuries, there
were a number of conflicts over which
direction the Roman Catholic Church would take. The earliest was
Saul of Tarsus, a Hellenized
Hebrew convert to the Zaddikim
Cult, which already had a
supernatural Hebrew Messiah, versus James, the brother of Jesus, also known
as James the Just.
Saul of Tarsus, the
reformulated "Paul", won out in a largely Hellenized population so it is no
surprise the writing of Saul of Tarsus dominates
the New Testament.
of Christianity is known as Pauline
The conversion of Saul of Tarsus into "Paul" can be dated to
a couple years after the crucifxion of Jesus of Nazareth, by his reference to
it in one of his letters.
According to the account in Acts, it
took place on the road to Damascus, where he reported having experienced a
vision of the resurrected Jesus.
The account says that "he fell to
the earth, and heard a voice saying unto him, Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou
me?" Saul replied, "Who art thou, Lord? And the Lord said, I am Jesus whom thou
In Galatians 1:16 Saul writes that
God "was pleased to reveal his son
In 1 Corinthians 15:8, as he lists the order in which
Jesus appeared to his disciples after his
resurrection, Saul writes, "last of all, as to one untimely born, He
appeared to me also."
Saul was a young Hellenized Hebrew
Zaddikim fanatic charged with
the execution and the seizure of disciples of Jesus.
On the road to Damascus
Saul was struck with the realization that he could mold the evolving legend of
Jesus, one of the last Tannaim, using
the Zaddikim Messiah with
which he had recently become aquainted. Within the Sanhedrin the last
remaining elements of a Hasmonean high priest inner circle cult, the
Zaddikim, still existed. The
Zaddikim were an extremist
apocalyptic sect whose stated aim was to invoke the intervention of
supernatural powers to establish Israel as a sovereign realm. They had
extremist Zealot followers they used a
shock troops. And they
had the Sicarii leadership.
"His whole state of mind shows the influence
of the Gnostic lore of Alexandria, especially the
Hermes literature, hence
his strange belief in supernatural powers. Throughout Paul's writings
an irrational or pathological
element could not but repel the disciples of the Rabbis. The conception of
a new faith, half pagan and half Jewish, such as Saul preached, and
susceptibility to its influences, were altogether foreign to the nature of
Jewish life and thought." - Kaufmann Kohler, Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Beth-El,
Modern scholars believe that Jesus preached mainly to Hebrews
as Jesus was baptized by John the Baptist whose opinions he would have shared.
James, as leader of the Jerusalem Church, taught both Aramaic and Greek
Tarsus, as the 'Apostle to the Gentiles,' made the teaching of Jesus relevant
and interesting to the polytheistic Hellenized population.
for the fledgling Christianity to gain attention in
the Hellenized culture, the religion had
to obtain certain characteristics common to the other
religions of that time. There was
a ready structural model to be found in the
State religion of Rome which
had adopted the myths of the Greek city states which had been spread throughout
the Mediterranean by the Greek colonizers - the best known of which was
Alexander III of Macedonia who
conquered all cultures from the Ionian Sea to the Himalayas.
325 Anno Domini A new state religion,
Pauline Christianity codified as the
'official' form of Christianity, protected and promoted by Constantine, is
formalized, as "Nicene Christianity" at
the Council of Nicaea.
You could become a Christian layman through baptism but you could only
be a Christian clergyman, initially by being born into the group.
Roman Catholics had to
abandon the right of being birthed into the Church as there was not enough
layman being born to support the clergy.
Nicene Creed solved this problem by
decreeing that after ordination a priest could not marry (prefigures the
352 Council of Laodicea decrees
women are not to be ordained.
385 Pope Siricius
leaves his wife in order to
become pope and then decrees that priests may no longer sleep with their
Council of Rome, authorized by
imperial sanction in the Theodosian decrees in both the Eastern and Western
Roman Empire makes it a capital offense to
practice in form of religion accept Nicene
Christianity as expounded at the Council of Rome or
Both groups consisted of "chosen
You can only be a
Jew if your mother is a Jew so being a Jew is race based.
The Gospel of Thomas was one of the
gospels that did not make the final cut and is a collection of over
one hundred statements made by Jesus.
Although it is known to be a corrupted text, as it was transcribed from Greek
to Coptic, about half of
the sayings have direct parallels to sayings recorded in the canonical gospels,
and much of the other half can be linked theologically to the rest of the
The existence of the
Gospel of Thomas has been known
to scholars since the origins of Christianity, but
no copies were known to have
survived any of the puritanical purges. The work is mentioned by the early
Roman Catholic Church fathers in a
Throughout the text of the Gospel of Thomas, Jesus offers
numerous ways to attain the
Kingdom of Heaven.
redemption a personal
thing and bypasses the need for a priest or
an organized church
orthodox Catholic standpoint, the Gospel of Thomas would have been
Around 233, Origen, mentions the Gospel of Thomas on a list of
Coptic gospels. In 1952 it
was established that Papyrus 1 and 655 were also fragments of the Gospel of Thomas.
The Gospel of Thomas was never cannonized
and was found to be heretical because it
encourages the reader
to think for himself!
Origen was the most prolific and influential Christian writer prior to
the legalization of Christianity by Rome. Origen was responsible for
the intellectual triumph of Catholic
Christianity over the gnostic
and pagan cults of Christianity.
Origen distinguished between
different types of biblical interpretation,
historical, moral and spiritual, and argued that
biblical works were primarily theological compositions.
This forged real
problems of interpretation at the
historical and moral levels and because of this Origen was condemned as a
heretic by the Roman Catholic Church a
century after his death.
The Roman Catholic
Church has always fought against those who would use
the path of knowledge to attain the
Kingdom of Heaven;
claiming that the path to heaven lies in
unquestioning faith in precepts and pronouncements of
the Roman Catholic
This is also true of many of
Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia, convoked by the
Imperial Roman Emperor
Constantine in 325, was the first ecumenical conference of bishops of the
Roman Catholic Church, and resulted
in the first uniform Christian
"Many like the holy apostles,
bore in their bodies the marks of the Lord Jesus Christ. Paul, Bishop of
Neo-Cæsarea, a fortress situated on the banks of the Euphrates, had been
deprived of the use of both hands by the application of a red-hot iron. Some
had had the right eye torn out, others had lost the right arm. In short, it was
an assembly of martyrs." - Theodoret, speaking of the assembled bishops
previous trials and tribulations under
said that the crimes of priests ought not to be made known to the multitude,
lest they should become an occasion of offence or of sin. He also said, that,
if he had detected a bishop in the very act of committing adultery, he would
have thrown his imperial robe over the unlawful deed." - Eusebius speaking of
the Emperor Constantine's opening speech
With the creation of the
Nicene Creed, a precedent was
established for subsequent 'general (ecumenical) councils of Bishops' (Synods)
to create statements of belief and canons of doctrinal orthodoxy - the intent
being to create unity of belief for the whole of Christendom.
The primary purpose of the council was to resolve
disagreements in the Church of Alexandria over the nature of Jesus in
relationship to the Father; in particular, whether Jesus was of the same or
merely of similar substance as God the Father.
Alexander of Alexandria and Athanasius took
the first position; the popular presbyter Arius, from whom the term
Arian controversy comes, took
The council decided against the
The council also decided in favor of celebrating the date of the
Christian Passover on the first Sunday after the
first full moon following the Vernal
"The essential feature of that creed (Nicene) was the safeguard against any
denial of the Son's divinity
which, it provided, through the explicit statement that the Son is homoousion, or consubstantial,
with the Father; not of an essence
dissimilar to that of the Father, or even of an essence merely similar, but of
the same essence. Only two of the assembled
bishops, Theonas and Secundus, persistently refused to sign; and these were
excommunicated and banished, together with Arius.
Eusebius of Nicomedia and
Theognis, while they subscribed the creed, refused to sanction the sentence
against Arius. For this cause they were deposed and banished shortly after the
adjournment of the council, but ere long were restored and regarded by
Constantine with favor." -
History of the Christian Church by Henry C. Sheldon of Boston University,
Thomas Y. Crowell and Company, New York ©1895 The
First Council of Nicaea was
historically significant because it was the first effort to attain consensus in
the fellowship of Christ through an assembly representing
institutionalized Christendom. With the
creation of the Nicene Creed, a
precedent was established for subsequent general councils to create a statement
of belief and canons of doctrinal
orthodoxy hoping to create a textual source that would unify Christendom.
"Persistent attempts were made to poison the mind of Constantine
against the most able champion of the Nicene
Creed, namely, Athanasius, who had become Bishop of Alexandria shortly
after the adjournment of the council. Slanderous charges were urged, and
finally had their desired effect (336) in securing the banishment of the
iron-hearted bishop. Meanwhile, Arius had been recalled from banishment and
restored to imperial favor, since he succeeded in convincing Constantine of his
substantial agreement with the Nicene
formula, and declared upon oath that he did not hold the faith for which he had
been condemned. To complete his triumph and that of his friends, it only
remained that he should formally be restored to church fellowship." - Henry C.
Unfortunately that did not happen as Arius was poisoned through
the machinations of Athanasius and he was "deprived both of communion and of
After Emperor Constantine came
Constantine's nephew, a philosopher and the last pagan Emperor. Following
Emperor Julian came
Emperor Valentinian who sent
his brother Emperor Valens to
rule in the East.
"The tyrannical pressure of Constantius drove
the Nicene party into the shade, and
caused not a few instances of defection within its ranks. But unflinching
advocates still sustained its cause. Athanasius, in particular, was unmoved by
the storm of adversity, and his ardor was in no wise cooled by his repeated
experience of banishment. The victory, therefore, had already been prepared for
orthodoxy when the second ecumenical council assembled at Constantinople, in
the year 381, under the auspices of the
Emperor Theodosius. By
that council the Nicene Creed was
successfully re-affirmed. Arianism appeared thereafter as a vanquished foe, and
found little place except among certain of the barbarian tribes, in whose midst
it maintained itself till the sixth century. " - Henry C.
In conclusion, the books of modern New Testament
where chosen by the Roman Catholics to
be the 'Word of God' and any writing that
did not fall within the dogma of the
Imperial State Religion of
Holy Roman Catholic Church was
Most of the historical texts that could have shed light on
what actually occurred when Jesus walked on
the Earth and what Jesus actually said were destroyed for the sole purpose
of elevating the Holy Roman Catholic
Church to the position of
intercessor to God.
Roman Catholic Church defined the religion of Christainity by defining the
books that would be included in the Bible.
The truth is this:
Jesus' original works were in words
not in writing.
Many different men, with many different opinions,
wrote down the oral accounts of
the words and
the life of Jesus
embellishing and refining as they saw fit according to their own belief
system unique to the individual
If we understand that
spiritual corruption is real
we can learn to walk with God by
understanding the Bible as a
allegorical guide for living embedded in a marvelous
With this understanding we
can respect every living thing that God has brought into creation for what it
is: the Spirit of God animating inanimate matter forging life.
see life as a horrible, ugly thing then you have entirely missed the message of
Jesus' word that Jesus gave his life to bring to you.
Jesus told us
that the attitude we have when living our lives is what saddles us with our own
personal hell or showers us with our own personal
heaven in this life on Earth.
frees the soul in this life, right now, as opposed to some
mythical afterlife that has never
been shown to actually exist in reality.
Redemption comes from
understanding one's own weakness' and working to correct those
Jesus' message has always
been a message of tolerance,
Self for its
imperfections as much as
Others that trespass against
Ego to free
This web site is not a commercial web site and
is presented for educational purposes only.
|This website defines a new religious
ideology to which its author adheres. The author feels that the falsification
of reality outside personal experience has forged a populace unable to discern
propaganda from reality and that this has been done purposefully by an
international corporate cartel through their agents who wish to foist a corrupt
version of reality on the human race. Religious intolerance occurs when any
group refuses to tolerate religious practices, religious beliefs or persons due
to their religious ideology. This web site marks the founding of the religion
aptly named The Truth of the Way of Life - a rational gnostic mystery religion
based on reason which requires no leap of faith, accepts no tithes, has no
supreme leader, no church buildings and in which each and every individual is
encouraged to develop a personal relation with the Creator and Sustainer
through the pursuit of the knowledge of reality in the hope of curing the
spiritual corruption that has enveloped the human spirit. The tenets of The
Truth of the Way of Life are spelled out in detail on this web site by the
author. Violent acts against individuals due to their religious beliefs in
America is considered a "hate crime."
This web site in no way condones
violence. To the contrary the intent here is to reduce the violence that is
already occurring due to the international corporate cartels desire to control
the human race. The international corporate cartel already controls the world
banking system, corporate media worldwide, the global industrial military
entertainment complex and is responsible for the collapse of morals, the
elevation of self-centered behavior and the destruction of global ecosystems.
Civilization is based on cooperation. Cooperation does not occur at
the point of a gun.
mores and values have declined precipitously over the last century as the
corrupt international cartel has garnered more and more power. This power rests
in the ability to deceive the populace in general through corporate media by
pressing emotional buttons which have been preprogrammed into the population
through prior corporate media psychological operations. The results have been
the destruction of the family and the destruction of social structures that do
not adhere to the corrupt international elites vision of a perfect world.
Through distraction and coercion the direction of thought of the bulk of the
population has been directed toward solutions proposed by the corrupt
international elite that further consolidates their power and which further
All views and opinions presented on this web site are
the views and opinions of individual human men and women that, through their
writings, showed the capacity for intelligent, reasonable, rational, insightful
and unpopular thought. All factual information presented on this web site is
believed to be true and accurate and is presented as originally presented in
print media which may or may not have originally presented the facts
truthfully. Opinion and thoughts have been adapted, edited, corrected,
redacted, combined, added to, re-edited and re-corrected as nearly all opinion
and thought has been throughout time but has been done so in the spirit of the
original writer with the intent of making his or her thoughts and opinions
clearer and relevant to the reader in the present time.
Fair Use Notice
This site may contain copyrighted material the use of which has
not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making
such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of criminal
justice, human rights, political, economic, democratic, scientific, and social
justice issues, etc. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such
copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In
accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is
distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in
receiving the included information for research and educational purposes. For more
information see: www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml. If you wish to use
copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond
'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.
© Lawrence Turner
All Rights Reserved