"The important firm of Seuthes and Son, of Alexandria, was facing difficulties
because of the loss of three richly laden ships in a Red Sea storm, followed by
a fall in the value of ostrich feather and ivory.
About the same time
the great house of Malchus and Co. of Tyre with branches at Antioch and
Ephesus, suddenly became bankrupt as a result of a strike among their
Phoenician workmen and the embezzlements of a freedman manager.
failures affected the Roman banking house, Quintus Maximus and Lucious Vibo.
A run commenced on their bank and spread to other banking houses that
were said to be involved, particularly Brothers Pittius." - Otto Lightner,
History of Business Depressions
1⁄3 of every senators fortune be invested in
The senators had 18 months to make this
When Publius Spencer, a wealthy noblemen, requested 30
million sesterces from Balbus Ollius, he was unable to fulfill his request.
Over the next few days, prominent banks in Corinth, Carthage, Lyons and
This led to a bank panic and the closure of several
banks along the Via Sacra in Rome.
The panic swept throughout the Empire
including Egypt, Greece and France.
The decrees precipitating the
problem were suspended.
100 million sesterces was taken from the
imperial treasury and distributed among reliable bankers, to be loaned to
debtors with assets.
No interest was to be collected for three
fair market value is doubled for loan
purposes to stop foreclosure.
This enabled many people to avoid selling
their estates at low prices, stopping the fall in prices and
liquifying the financial
The financial panic ended as quickly
as it began due to increased
When Tiberius died his fortune of 2.7 billion sesterces
went to his son Caligula.
George Peabody opens business in Georgetown, DC
as Peabody, Riggs & Company operating the Georgetown Slave
Heavy government borrowing to finance the War of 1812 leads
to a shortage of capital reserves in existing banks which leads to the
establishment of new banks, thus greatly expanding the money in
Duke of Wellington attacks and forces
Napoleon Bonaparte to
Louis XVIII is crowned King of France.
Napoleon Bonaparte is exiled to the tiny
island of Elba, off the coast of Italy.
Napoleon Bonaparte escapes exile
and assembles an army which the Duke of Wellington defeats less than 90 days
later at Waterloo.
Rothschild sends a trusted courier, Rothworth, to Waterloo where he stays
on the edge of the battlefield.
Peabody, Riggs & Company move to
Baltimore where they operated from 1815 to 1835.
George Peabody finds
himself increasingly involved with business originating from London, and in
1835, he established the firm of George Peabody & Company in London.
Nathan Mayer Rothschild funds George
Peabody's ascension into London society.
George Peabody operates in
stock markets with a half million lb on hand, and became very astute in buying
and selling on both sides of the Atlantic. Junius
Spencer Morgan, father of John
Pierpont Morgan, acts as George Peabody's American agent.
Peabody later concieves of the idea of tax-exempt charitable foundation by
founding the Peabody Fund established in 1867 with $2 million.
Fund was established to provide money for construction, endowments,
scholarships, teacher and industrial education for newly freed slaves.
The Fund would seek locations where there were sufficient numbers of
students and cooperative public officials who would combine the relatively
small grant with tax money to build the school.
wanted to industrialize the South.
George Peabody is succeeded by Junius
Junius Spencer Morgan expands the firm's activities by
shipping large quantities of railroad
iron to the US from England.
unregulated expansion leads Congress in to
pass a bill permitting yet another privately
owned central bank to regulate the money supply.
This bank is called
the, "Second Bank of the US," and it's charter is a carbon copy of its
predecessor, the First Bank of the US.
The US government would once again supposedly owns 20% of the shares of
The Second Bank of the US calls a
halt to the expansion of the money
supply and launches the painful process of contraction which in turn
creates the Panic of 1819.
Panic of 1819 Marks the end of the economic expansion that had
following the War of 1812.
The first major financial crisis in the US
after the depression of the late 1780s results in widespread foreclosures, bank
failures, unemployment, and a slump in agriculture and manufacturing.
1826 Talley stick is taken out of circulation in
1828 Senator Andrew Jackson of
Tennessee is elected President.
1832 Second Bank
of the US asks Congress to pass a renewal of the bank's charter four years
Congress complies and sends the bill to Andrew Jackson for
Andrew Jackson vetoes the bill.
Congress is unable to
override Andrew Jackson's veto.
Andrew Jackson stands for re-election
and for the first time in American history he takes re-election campaign on the
His campaign slogan is, "Jackson
And No Bank!"
1833 Andrew Jackson appoints Roger
B. Taney as Secretary of State for the Treasury, with instructions to start
removing the government's deposits from the Second Bank of the US.
Andrew Jackson's previous two Secretaries of State for the Treasury,
William J. Duane and Louis McLane both refused to comply with Andrew Jackson's
request and were fired as a result.
Nicholas Biddle blocks Roger B.
Taney's nomination and threatens to cause a depression if the Bank is not
"This worthy President thinks that because he has scalped
Indians and imprisoned judges, he is to have his way with the Bank. He is
mistaken."- Nicholas Biddle
Nicholas Biddle then went on to brazenly
admit that the central
bank was intending to make money scarce in order to force the hand of
Congress into re-chartering the bank.
Second Bank of the United States
sharply contracts the money supply by calling in old loans and refusing to
issue new ones.
A financial panic ensues.
"In the fall of 1833
the removal of the deposits was made, and the Panic of 1834 followed.
The bank, by October, 1834, had contracted it circulation nearly 20 per
cent. When its attempt to coerce a restoration of the deposits and a renewal of
the charter failed it commenced an expansion.
The great expansion
produced the disastrous excesses of 1835 and 1836. The bank is justly
responsible for the whole amount of the expansion from the lowest point of
contraction in 1834." - Samuel Jones Tilden
Congress assembles the "Panic Session" on March 27 Andrew Jackson is
officially censured by Congress for withdrawing funds from the Second Bank, in
a vote which passes the Senate by 26 to 20.
Nicholas Biddle boasts in
public about the plan to crash the
In a complete about turn on April 4, the House of
Representatives voted 134 to 82 against re-chartering the Second Bank of the
Second Bank is responsible for receiving and maintaining all the
deposits of the federal government including revenue generated from customs
duties taken from foreign trade as well as sales of federal land in the West.
Second Bank notes are the only notes accepted by the federal government
for payment of federal taxes.
A special committee is established to
investigate whether the Second Bank of the US had caused the crash.
When the investigating committee arrives at the bank's door in
Philadelphia with a subpoena authorizing them to inspect the books, Nicholas
Biddle refuses to give them up, or allow inspection of correspondence with
Congressmen relating to their personal loans and advancements he has made to
Nicholas Biddle also refuses to testify before the committee back
Almost a third of Second Bank stock was held by
foreigners, mostly in Great Britain.
Second Bank charter advantaged
foreign holders of the Banks stock over domestic holders because
foreigners were exempt from state and federal taxes on the dividends paid out
"While the Second Bank did not directly control the
nations monetary policy, the large amount of deposits and constant demand
for its notes allowed it indirectly control the money supply of state and
private banks. By accumulating large amounts of other banks notes in its
vaults, the Second Bank of the United States could reduce the amount of credit
these banks were capable of issuing by redeeming notes for specie to reduce the
amount of deposits held within the bank. In the same vein, they could allow
credit to expand by holding other banks notes in their vaults or
depositing specie into state and private banks , thereby allowing those
institutions to issue more credit.
The sheer size of the banks balance sheet gave it a large rein of control
over the inner workings of the nations state and private banks." - Kevin
1836 Charter for the Second Bank of
the US expires, and the bank ceases functioning as America's
is later arrested and charged with fraud.
Nicholas Biddle is tried and
acquitted but dies in 1844 still battling civil suits.
Bank of England increases the interest
rate paid to depositors effectively
curtailing investment in America in response to Andrew Jackson refusing to
renew the central bank
liquidity in the credit market due to the withdrawal of funds creates the
Panic of 1837.
Out of 850 banks in the US, 343 closed entirely, 62
failed partially, and the system of state banks
received a shock from
which it never fully recovered.
Contraction of the currency immediately
"The Panic of 1837 was aggravated by the
Bank of England when it in
one day threw out all the paper connected with the US." - Henry Clews
There was no expansion of the currency after 1837 until the discovery
of the gold mines of California in 1849
and the silver mines in Nevada in
Brown Brothers withdraw from the domestic
Andrew Jackson pays off the final installment of the
Lawrence attempts to shoot Andrew Jackson, both pistols misfire.
Richard Lawrence openly brags that
powerful people in
Europe hired him and promised to protect him.
Richard Lawrence is
found not guilty by reason of insanity.
1850 State banks again began to expand, and once more America
had fair prices for produce and prosperous times.
continues until 1857.
There is no inflation, the currency is not in excess of
the legitimate needs of business and prices are not too high.
(James) Rothschild in France is said to be worth 600 million francs, which at
the time is 150 million francs more than all the other bankers in France put
Between 1854 to 1864,
$200,000,000 to England;
$50,000,000 to Austria;
$40,000,000 to Prussia;
$130,000,000 to France;
$482,000,000 in loans.
1852 "From the time I took office as Chancellor of the
Exchequer, I began to learn that the State held, in the face of
the Bank and the City, an
essentially false position as to finance. The government itself was not to be a
substantive power, but was to leave the Money
Power supreme and unquestioned." - William Gladstone
1855 Creditanstalt-Bankverein founded by Anselm Salomon
Freiherr von Rothschild to finance industrialization projects in the
Austrian Empire primarily in
the field of railroad
construction (Lombardian-Venetian state-owned railway) and the
iron industry (Prague Iron Industry
Russian Empire loses the Crimean War, fought from October 1853 to
February 1856, to an alliance of the
Ottoman Empire, France,
Britain and Sardinia.
The immediate cause involves the rights of
Christian minorities in the Holy
Land, which is a part of the Ottoman Empire.
promote the rights of Roman
Catholics, while Russia promotes those of the
Eastern Orthodox Church.
New York City branch of the Ohio Life Insurance and
Trust Company fails when the Bank of
England calls all loans to British investors in American banks.
Grain prices fall with the end of the Crimean War and Russian
re-entry into global markets.
speculation based on forecasts
of new railroads collapses.
More than 5,000 American businesses
failed within a year.
Bank of England lends
George Peabody £ 5,000,000 during the
Panic of 1857.
1861 American Civil War begins at Fort
Sumter, South Carolina, after South Carolina leaves the Union.
Slavery has always been cited as the cause of
the war but that is a fallacy.
"I have no purpose directly or
indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the state where it
now exists. I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no
inclination to do so. My paramount objective is to save the Union and it is
not either to save or destroy slavery. If I
could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it." -
Southern States were in a dire economic situation due to the actions of the
industrialists had used trade tariffs to prevent the Southern States from
buying cheaper European goods.
Europe subsequently retaliated by stopping
cotton imports from the South.
The South, forced to pay more for
goods, found income slashed.
"The division of the US into
federations of equal force was decided long before the
Civil War by the high financial powers of
Europe, these bankers were afraid that the United States if they remained as
one block and as one nation, would attain economic and financial independence
which would upset their financial
domination over the world.
They foresaw tremendous booty if they
could substitute two feeble democracies, indebted to the Jewish financiers, to
the vigorous Republic, confident and self-providing.
I fear that Jewish
Banks with their craftiness and tortuous tricks will entirely control the
exuberant riches of America, and use it to systematically corrupt modern
The Jew will not
hesitate to plunge the whole of Christendom into wars and chaos, in order that
the earth should become the inheritance of Israel." - Otto Von Bismark
stated as Chancellor of Germany (1871 - 1890)
Only months after the
first shots are fired in South Carolina the soulless central bankers loan
Napoleon III of France (the nephew of
Napoleon Bonaparte ), 210
million francs to seize Mexico and station troops along the Southern border of
the US, by taking advantage of the American Civil War to return Mexico to
This was in violation of the, "Monroe Doctrine," which was issued by
President James Monroe during his
seventh annual State of the Union address to Congress, in 1823.
return, the US planned to stay neutral in wars between European powers and in
wars between a European power and its colonies. However, if these latter type
of wars were to occur in the Americas, the US would view such action as hostile
While the French were breaching the,
Monroe Doctrine in Mexico, the
British followed suit by moving 11,000 troops into Canada and positioning them
along the Canadian border.
December 27, 1863
Allgemeine Österreichische Boden-Credit-Anstalt founded entirely
independent from government.
Austrian central bank policymakers are
unhappy with the premium which has to be paid when exchanging Austrian
banknotes for silver.
"Rothschild's war profits from the Napoleonic Wars
financed their later stock
Under Metternich, Austria after long hesitation,
finally agreed to accept financial direction from the
House of Rothschild." - Richard
Lewinsohn, Profits of War
Anglo-Oesterreichische Bank founded.
During the "Grundentlastung," many
members of the high
nobility have a substantial amount of liquid funds at their disposal and
become major shareholders in many of the new joint stock corporate banks.
The financial resources of the Viennese financial center increases
Anglo-Oesterreichische Bank is given the sole right to issue
The Austrian government relies on this to continue to fund the
International bankers take
II of Russia narrowly escapes an assassination attempt in the city of Kiev and
Ferdinand Cohen-Blind fails to assassinate
Otto von Bismarck in Unter den
Linden in Berlin.
On June 14 the Austro-Prussian War begins.
to a breach of the provisions of the sole currency issuing right the government
is obliged to pay compensation in the form of interest.
Panic: September 18th, 1873
cause of the Panic of 1873 orginates in the first private joint stock corporate
bank authorized by Austrian government and set up on the initiative of the
House of Rothschild.
The "K.K. Privilegierte Creditanstalt für
Handel und Gewerbe" (a credit institution
catering to trade and industry) intended to practice its business activity
primarily in the field of railroad construction companies (Lombardian-Venetian
state-owned railway) and the iron industry (Prague Iron Industry Company).
Two dozen insurance undertakings go
into liquidation or became bankrupt with the meltdown of the Vienna Stock
Exchange in Austria.
Speculation on future
trade, previous debt amassed fighting the Austro-Prussian War, and
large expenditures on the World Exposition held in the
of Vienna create the failure.
On September 18, due to the meltdown
of the Vienna Stock Exchange, Jay Cooke, a
major component of the American banking establishment, is unable to market
several million dollars in Northern Pacific Railroad bonds which precipitates
Panic sweeps the
New York Stock Exchange precipitating the
Panic of 1873.
Although the American branch of
Jay Cooke goes bankrupt
- the London branch suffers no ill effects.
Panic of 1893 The Philadelphia and Reading Railroad and the
National Cordage Company go bankrupt.
Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company Records,
Investment banks began calling in loans.
railroads, and steel mills fall into bankruptcy.
Over fifteen thousand
Unemployment rates soar to twenty percent.
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perspective with which to engage reality to which its author adheres. The
author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has
forged a populace unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has
been done purposefully by an international corporate cartel through their
agents who wish to foist a corrupt version of reality on the human race.
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This web site marks the founding of a system of philosophy named The Truth of
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based on reason which requires no leap of faith, accepts no tithes, has no
supreme leader, no church buildings and in which each and every individual is
encouraged to develop a personal relation with the Creator and Sustainer
through the pursuit of the knowledge of reality in the hope of curing the
spiritual corruption that has enveloped the human spirit. The tenets of The
Truth of the Way of the Lumière Infinie are spelled out in detail on
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This web site
in no way condones violence. To the contrary the intent here is to reduce the
violence that is already occurring due to the international corporate cartels
desire to control the human race. The international corporate cartel already
controls the world economic system, corporate media worldwide, the global
industrial military entertainment complex and is responsible for the collapse
of morals, the elevation of self-centered behavior and the destruction of
global ecosystems. Civilization is based on coöperation. Coöperation
does not occur at the point of a gun.
American social mores and values
have declined precipitously over the last century as the corrupt international
cartel has garnered more and more power. This power rests in the ability to
deceive the populace in general through corporate media by pressing emotional
buttons which have been preprogrammed into the population through prior
corporate media psychological operations. The results have been the destruction
of the family and the destruction of social structures that do not adhere to
the corrupt international elites vision of a perfect world. Through distraction
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directed toward solutions proposed by the corrupt international elite that
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