"The important firm of Seuthes and Son, of Alexandria, was facing difficulties
because of the loss of three richly laden ships in a Red Sea storm, followed by
a fall in the value of ostrich feather and ivory.
At the same time the
great house of Malchus and Co. of Tyre with branches at Antioch and Ephesus,
suddenly became bankrupt as a result of a strike among Phoenician workmen and
the embezzlement of a freedman manager.
These failures affected the
Roman banking house, Quintus Maximus and Lucious Vibo.
A run commenced
on their bank and spread to other banking houses that were said to be involved,
particularly Brothers Pittius." - Otto Lightner, History of Business
Tiberius decreed 1⁄3 of
every senator's fortune be invested in Italian land.
The senators had
18 months to make this adjustment.
When Publius Spencer, a wealthy
noblemen, requested 30 million sesterces from Balbus Ollius, he was unable to
fulfill his request.
Over the next few days, prominent banks in
Corinth, Carthage, Lyons and Byzantium failed.
This led to a bank panic
and the closure of several banks along the Via Sacra.
The panic swept
throughout the Empire including Egypt, Greece and France.
precipitating the problem were suspended.
100 million sesterces was
taken from the imperial treasury and distributed among reliable bankers, to be
loaned to debtors with assets.
No interest was to be collected for three
fair market value is doubled for loan
purposes to stop foreclosure.
enabled many people to avoid selling their estates at low prices, stopping the
fall in prices and liquifying the
The financial panic ended as quickly as it began
due to increased liquidity.
When Tiberius died his 2.7 billion sesterces
went to his adopted son Caligula.
George Peabody opens business in
Georgetown, DC as Peabody, Riggs & Company operating the Georgetown
Heavy government borrowing to finance the War of 1812
leads to a shortage of capital reserves in existing banks which leads to the
establishment of new banks, thus greatly expanding the money in
Duke of Wellington attacks and forces
Napoleon Bonaparte to
Louis XVIII is crowned King of France.
Napoleon Bonaparte is exiled to the
tiny island of Elba, off the coast of Italy.
Napoleon Bonaparte escapes
exile and assembles an army which the Duke of Wellington defeats less than 90
days later at Waterloo.
Mayer Rothschild sends a trusted courier, Rothworth, to Waterloo where he
stays on the edge of the battlefield.
Peabody, Riggs & Company move
to Baltimore where they operated from 1815 to 1835.
finds himself increasingly involved with business originating from London, and
in 1835, he established the firm of George Peabody & Company in London.
Nathan Mayer Rothschild funds
George Peabody's ascension into London society.
George Peabody operates
in stock markets with a half million lb on hand, and became very astute in
buying and selling on both sides of the Atlantic. Junius Spencer Morgan, father
of John Pierpont
Morgan, acts as George Peabody's American agent.
later concieves of the idea of tax-exempt charitable foundation by founding the
Peabody Fund established in 1867 with $2 million.
The Peabody Fund was
established to provide money for construction, endowments, scholarships,
teacher and industrial education for newly freed slaves.
The Fund would
seek locations where there were sufficient numbers of students and cooperative
public officials who would combine the relatively small grant with tax money to
build the school.
Northern merchantilists wanted to industrialize the
George Peabody is succeeded by Junius Spencer Morgan.
Junius Spencer Morgan expands the firm's activities by
shipping large quantities of railroad
iron to the US from England.
unregulated expansion leads Congress in to pass
a bill permitting yet another privately owned
central bank to regulate the money supply.
This bank is
called the, "Second Bank of the US," and it's charter is a carbon copy of its
predecessor, the First Bank of the US.
The US government would once
again supposedly owns 20% of the shares of the bank.
The Second Bank of
the US calls a halt to the expansion of the money supply and launches the painful process
of contraction which in turn creates the Panic of 1819.
Panic of 1819 Marks the end of the
economic expansion that had following the War of 1812.
The first major
financial crisis in the US after the
depression of the late 1780s results in
widespread foreclosures, bank
failures, unemployment, and a slump in agriculture and manufacturing.
1826 Talley stick is taken out of circulation in
1828 Senator Andrew Jackson of
Tennessee is elected President.
1832 Second Bank
of the US asks Congress to pass a renewal of the bank's charter four years
Congress complies and sends the bill to Andrew Jackson for
Andrew Jackson vetoes the bill.
Congress is unable to
override Andrew Jackson's veto.
Andrew Jackson stands for re-election
and for the first time in American history he takes re-election campaign on the
His campaign slogan is, "Jackson And No Bank!"
1833 Andrew Jackson appoints Roger B.
Taney as Secretary of State for the Treasury, with instructions to start
removing the government's deposits from the Second Bank
of the US.
Andrew Jackson's previous two Secretaries of State for the
Treasury, William J. Duane and Louis McLane both refused to comply with Andrew
Jackson's request and were fired as a result.
Nicholas Biddle blocks
Roger B. Taney's nomination and threatens to cause a depression if the Bank is
"This worthy President thinks that because he has
scalped Indians and imprisoned judges, he is to have his way with the Bank. He
is mistaken."- Nicholas Biddle
Nicholas Biddle then went on to brazenly
admit that the central bank was intending to
make money scarce in order to force the hand of Congress into re-chartering the
Second Bank of the United States sharply
contracts the money supply by
calling in old loans and
refusing to issue new ones.
A financial panic ensues.
fall of 1833 the removal of the deposits was made, and the Panic of
The bank, by October, 1834, had contracted it
circulation nearly 20 per cent.
When its attempt to coerce a restoration
of the deposits and a renewal of the charter
failed it commenced an expansion.
The great expansion produced the
disastrous excesses of 1835 and 1836. The bank is justly responsible for the
whole amount of the expansion from the lowest point of contraction in 1834." -
Samuel Jones Tilden
1835 Congress assembles the
"Panic Session" on March 27 Andrew Jackson is officially censured by
Congress for withdrawing funds from the Second Bank, in a vote which passes the
Senate by 26 to 20.
Nicholas Biddle boasts in public about the
plan to crash the American
In a complete about turn on April 4, the House of
Representatives voted 134 to 82 against re-chartering the Second Bank of the
Second Bank is responsible for receiving and maintaining all the
deposits of the federal
government including revenue generated from customs duties taken from
foreign trade as well as sales of federal land in the West.
notes are the only notes accepted by the federal government for payment of
A special committee is established to investigate
whether the Second Bank of the US had caused the crash.
When the investigating committee arrives at the
bank's door in Philadelphia with a subpoena authorizing them to inspect the
books, Nicholas Biddle refuses to give them up, or allow inspection of
correspondence with Congressmen relating to their personal loans and
advancements he has made to them.
Nicholas Biddle also refuses to
testify before the committee back in Washington.
Almost a third of
Second Bank stock was held by foreigners, mostly in Great
Second Bank charter advantaged foreign holders of the Bank's
stock over domestic holders because foreigners were exempt from state and
federal taxes on the dividends paid out to them.
"While the Second Bank did not directly control the
nation's monetary policy, the large amount of deposits and
constant demand for its notes allowed it
indirectly control the money
supply of state and private banks.
By accumulating large amounts of
other banks' notes in its vaults, the Second Bank of the United States could
reduce the amount of credit these banks were capable of issuing by redeeming
notes for specie to reduce the amount of deposits held within the bank.
In the same vein, they could allow credit to expand by holding other
banks' notes in their vaults or depositing specie into state and private banks
, thereby allowing those institutions to
issue more credit.
The sheer size of the bank's balance sheet gave it a
large rein of control over the inner workings of the nation's state and private
banks." - Kevin Mulcrone 2017
for the Second Bank of the US expires, and the bank ceases functioning as
America's central bank.
Biddle is later arrested and charged with fraud.
Nicholas Biddle is
tried and acquitted but dies in 1844 still battling civil suits.
Panic of 1837
Bank of England increases the interest rate paid to depositors
effectively curtailing investment in America in response to Andrew Jackson
refusing to renew the central bank
liquidity in the credit market due to the withdrawal of funds creates the
Panic of 1837.
Out of 850
banks in the US, 343 closed entirely, 62 failed partially, and the system of
state banks received a
shock from which it never fully recovered.
Contraction of the
currency immediately follows.
"The Panic of 1837 was aggravated by the
Bank of England when it in
one day threw out all the paper connected with the US." - Henry Clews
There was no expansion of the currency after 1837 until the
discovery of the
gold mines of California in 1849 and
the silver mines in Nevada in
Brothers withdraw from the domestic lending business.
1838 Andrew Jackson pays off the final installment of
the national debt.
Lawrence attempts to shoot Andrew Jackson, both pistols misfire.
Richard Lawrence openly
brags that powerful
people in Europe hired him and promised to protect him.
Lawrence is found not guilty by reason of insanity.
1850 State banks again began to expand, and once more America
had fair prices for produce and prosperous times.
continues until 1857.
There is no inflation, the currency is not in
excess of the legitimate needs of business and prices are not too
Jacob (James) Rothschild in France is said to be worth 600 million
francs, which at the time is 150 million francs more than all the other bankers
in France put together.
$200,000,000 to England;
$40,000,000 to Prussia;
$50,000,000 to Russia;
$482,000,000 in loans.
1852 "From the time I took office as Chancellor of the
Exchequer, I began to learn that the State held, in the face of
the Bank and the City, an
essentially false position as to finance. The government itself was not to be a
substantive power, but was to leave the
Money Power supreme and
unquestioned." - William Gladstone
Creditanstalt-Bankverein founded by Anselm Salomon Freiherr von Rothschild to
finance industrialization projects in the
Austrian Empire primarily in
the field of railroad construction (Lombardian-Venetian state-owned railway)
and the iron industry (Prague Iron
1856 The Russian Empire loses the
Crimean War, fought from October 1853 to February 1856, to an alliance
of the Ottoman Empire,
France, Britain and Sardinia.
The initiating cause involved the rights
of Christian minorities in the
Holy Land, which is a part of the
French promote the rights of Roman
Catholics, while Russia promotes those of the
Eastern Orthodox Church.
Panic of 1857
New York City
branch of the Ohio Life Insurance and Trust Company fails when the
Bank of England calls all loans to
British investors in American banks.
Grain prices fall with the end of
the Crimean War and Russian re-entry into
Land speculation based on forecasts of new
More than 5,000 American businesses failed within a
The Bank of
England lends George Peabody £ 5,000,000 during the Panic of
1861 American Civil War begins at Fort
Sumter, South Carolina, after South Carolina leaves the Union.
Slavery has always been cited as the cause of the war
but that is a fallacy.
"I have no purpose directly or
indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the state where it
now exists. I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no
inclination to do so. My paramount objective is to save the Union and it is
not either to save or destroy slavery.
If I could save the Union without freeing any
slave, I would do it." -
The Southern States were in a dire economic situation due to
the actions of the Northern States.
Northern industrialists had used trade
tariffs to prevent the Southern States from buying cheaper European goods.
Europe subsequently retaliated by
stopping cotton imports from the South.
The South, forced to pay
more for goods, found income slashed.
"The division of the US
into federations of equal force was decided long before the Civil War by
the high financial powers of
Europe, these bankers were afraid that the United States if they remained
as one block and as one nation, would attain economic and financial
independence which would upset
their financial domination over the world.
They foresaw tremendous
booty if they could substitute two feeble democracies, indebted to the Jewish
financiers, to the vigorous Republic, confident and self-providing.
fear that Jewish Banks with their craftiness
and tortuous tricks will entirely control the exuberant riches of America,
and use it to systematically corrupt modern
The Jew will
not hesitate to plunge the whole of Christendom into wars and chaos, in order
that the earth should become the inheritance of Israel." - Otto Von Bismark
stated as Chancellor of Germany (1871 - 1890)
Only months after the
first shots are fired in South Carolina the soulless central bankers loan
Napoleon III of France (the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte), 210 million francs
to seize Mexico and station
troops along the Southern border of the US, by taking advantage of the
American Civil War to return
Mexico to colonial rule.
This was in violation of the, "Monroe Doctrine," which was issued by
President James Monroe during his
seventh annual State of the Union address to Congress, in 1823.
return, the US agreed to stay neutral in wars between
European powers and in wars between a
European power and
these latter type of wars were to occur in the Americas, the US would view such
action as hostile toward itself.
While the French were breaching the,
Monroe Doctrine in Mexico, the
British followed suit by moving 11,000 troops into Canada and positioning them
along the Canadian border.
December 27, 1863
Allgemeine Österreichische Boden-Credit-Anstalt founded entirely
independent from government.
Austrian central bank policymakers are
unhappy with the premium which has to be paid when exchanging Austrian
banknotes for silver.
"Rothschild's war profits from the Napoleonic Wars
financed their later stock speculations.
Under Metternich, Austria after
long hesitation, finally agreed to accept financial direction from the
House of Rothschild." -
Richard Lewinsohn, Profits of War
Anglo-Oesterreichische Bank founded.
During the "Grundentlastung," many
members of the high
nobility have a substantial amount of liquid funds at their disposal and
become major shareholders in many of the new joint stock corporate banks.
The financial resources of the Viennese financial center increases
Anglo-Oesterreichische Bank is given the sole right to issue
The Austrian government relies on this to continue to fund the
International bankers take
Tsar Alexander II of Russia narrowly escapes an assassination attempt
in the city of Kiev by Dmitry Vladimirovich Karakozov.
Cohen-Blind fails to assassinate Otto
von Bismarck in Unter den Linden in Berlin.
On June 14 the
Austro-Prussian War begins.
a breach of the provisions
of the sole currency issuing right the
government is obliged to pay compensation in the form of interest.
September 18th, 1873
The root cause of the Panic of 1873
orginates in the first private joint stock corporate bank authorized by
Austrian government and set up on the initiative of the House of Rothschild.
The "K.K. Privilegierte Creditanstalt für Handel und Gewerbe" (a
credit institution catering to trade and industry) intended to practice its
business activity primarily in the field of railroad construction companies
(Lombardian-Venetian state-owned railway) and the iron industry (Prague Iron
Two dozen insurance undertakings go into liquidation
or became bankrupt with the meltdown
of the Vienna Stock Exchange in Austria.
Speculation on future trade, previous debt
amassed fighting the Austro-Prussian War, and large expenditures on the
World Exposition held in the Austrian-Hungarian capital of Vienna create
On September 18, due to the meltdown of the Vienna Stock
Exchange, Jay Cooke, a major component of
the American banking establishment, is unable to market several million dollars
in Northern Pacific Railroad bonds which precipitates bankruptcy.
sweeps the New York Stock Exchange
precipitating the Panic of 1873.
Although the American branch of
Jay Cooke goes bankrupt
- the London branch suffers no ill effects.
Panic of 1893 The Philadelphia and Reading Railroad and the
National Cordage Company go bankrupt.
Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company Records,
banks began calling in loans.
railroads, and steel mills fall
Over fifteen thousand business'
Unemployment rates soar to twenty percent.
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perspective with which to engage reality to which its author adheres. The
author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has
forged a populace unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has
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corporate cartel through their agents who wish to foist a corrupt version
of reality on the human race. Religious intolerance occurs when any group
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philosophy named The Truth of the Way of the Lumière Infinie - a
rational gnostic mystery religion based on reason which requires no leap of
faith, accepts no tithes, has no supreme leader, no church buildings and in
which each and every individual is encouraged to develop a personal relation
with the Creator and Sustainer through the pursuit of the knowledge of reality
in the hope of curing the spiritual corruption that has enveloped the human
spirit. The tenets of The Truth of the Way of the Lumière Infinie are
spelled out in detail on this web site by the author. Violent acts against
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This web site in no way condones violence. To the contrary the
intent here is to reduce the violence that is already occurring due to the
international corporate cartels desire to control the human race. The
international corporate cartel already controls the world economic system,
corporate media worldwide, the global industrial military entertainment complex
and is responsible for the collapse of morals, the elevation of self-centered
behavior and the destruction of global ecosystems. Civilization is based on
coöperation. Coöperation does not occur at the point of a
American social mores and values have declined precipitously over
the last century as the corrupt international cartel has garnered more and more
power. This power rests in the ability to deceive the populace in general
through corporate media by pressing emotional buttons which have been
preprogrammed into the population through prior corporate media psychological
operations. The results have been the destruction of the family and the
destruction of social structures that do not adhere to the corrupt
international elites vision of a perfect world. Through distraction and
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directed toward solutions proposed by the corrupt international elite that
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