Philip Danforth Armour is a member of the Board of
Trade which controls the
price of pork, bacon, beef,
wheat and grain.
Dealing in futures on the Board of
Trade is a system originated for the purpose of enabling those with immense
wealth to force stocks up or down without any regard to the actual value for
Through their control of the Boards of Trade
and their monopoly of the traffic in farming products they put down the price
of farming products until it was impossible for the farmers to pay off the
"A few men buy all the wheat of the
There is no competition; the railroads fix the price of
wheat and grains to suit themselves, and grind the farmer down into
not only plunder the farmer in
the price, but they cheat in the measurement which fixes the quality of the
Several years ago, #1 wheat was 90 cents a bushel, #2 75 cents,
and #3, 60 cents a bushel .
The wheat was so graded by the buyers, that
all wheat weighing 60 lbs. and over to the bushel was rated #1 ; all wheat
weighing 56 lbs. and over, #2; and all wheat weighing 52 lbs. and over #3.
If the wheat were measured in the good old fashioned way in an
honest half bushel measure, most of the
wheat would weigh 60 lbs. to the bushel, and be rated as #1.
monopolists cheat systematically in the measure.
They use an oval
gallon measure, easily battered, by accident, to diminish its capacity.
Into such a small measure the wheat will not pack close, when poured
very gently out of a pitcher into it.
They then weigh the gallon and
multiply by 8 to find the weight of a bushel.
By this system of
measurement little of the wheat rates as #1; and very much of it is rated as
In this way, when #1 wheat was selling at 90 cents a bushel, this
system of measuring caused much of it to be rated as #3, which brought only 60
cents a bushel .
When the wheat is sold out of the elevators, where it
was under pressure, all of it would weigh 60 lbs. to the bushel, and be sold as
#1!" - LB Woolfolk
The nightmarishly complex wheat genome finally yields to
1888 American wheat crop is fifty
million bushels short.
A syndicate of Cincinnati capitalists organize
capital of $12,000,000 to operate in the Chicago market.
capital enough to make their operations a sure success under the rules of the
Chicago Board of Trade, which only allows wheat to be sold as it is delivered
into the elevator.
The Chicago Board of Trade then rescinds the rule
which prohibited the sale of wheat except as delivered into the elevators and
allows it to be sold out of the rail cars.
The Chicago Board of Trade
sold the Cincinnati syndicate wheat at seventy cents a bushel, till
their $12,000,000 was gone.
Once the money was gone the price of wheat
went to sixty cents a bushel !
As the wheat crop was fifty
million bushels short and the supply was inadequate to meet the demand it was
expected that wheat would have gone up to at least one dollar a bushel !
"Boards of Trade are instruments controlled at will by the money
of supply and demand is wholly abrogated as the will of the money power has
become the sole regulator of prices.
The law of supply and
demand can only regulate prices when there is a
free market, and the free
competition of buyers and sellers operates to regulate prices.
no such competition now; the agents of the money power are the only buyers of
Boards of Trade are subdued by them, and answer to their
By the might of capital, they can regulate prices in any
Board of Trade.
The money power controls absolutely the Chicago Board
of Trade, and Chicago regulates the price of produce for the whole country in
utter disregard of the
law of supply and demand, and in utter
violation of all the economic laws that regulate prices." - L.B.
The high price of flour in comparison with wheat reveals agents
of the money power have a large number of flour mills in their possession.
occasional sharp falls in the flour market, crushing mill owners of small
capital, and the purchase of the flour mills in Minneapolis shows their desire
to crush all competitors and get possession of the entire
1890 "I traveled widely through
Missouri, and everywhere I found statements that two-thirds to three-fourths of
the farm are under mortgage!
In Iowa, the same state of fact exists.
In some counties of that state, where farm used to sell for twenty-five
dollars per acre, the farm were mortgaged for one-third of their value; and
after a number of farms were bought in
by the mortgagee for eight dollars an acre, the amount of the mortgage, all the
lands receded to that price.
In Kansas, a very large proportion of the
farms are mortgaged - a much larger
proportion than in Iowa or Missouri.
A banker said to me, "The money
line of these Land Loan Companies always has three points: the agent in the
West, who loans the money; the intermediary in the East, from whom he gets it;
but the third point in the line is always London.
There is where the
money comes from."
Thus, a little bank in Connecticut can loan millions
of dollars every year, when it is only making in its regular business some
twenty thousand dollars a year.
About two-thirds of the farm of the
states of Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa,
Nebraska, Missouri and Kansas were mortgaged by 1890 for one-third of their
value, on five years time." - LB Woolfolk
farmlands of the Great Plains pass into
the hands of the Money Power much as the lands of the Southern plantations had
passed into their hands in the years following the
1891 28% of all farms are rented by
there are 4.5 million farm laborers.
"We are authorizing our
loan officers from the Western States to loan on properties, monies repayable
by September 1st, 1894.
No fatal date is to exceed this date.
On September 1st, 1894, we shall categorically refuse all loan
On that day, we shall demand the repayment of our money, under
penalty of foreclosure on
The mortgaged properties will become
We'll thus be able to acquire, at a price agreeable to us,
two-thirds of the farms west of the Mississippi and thousands more east of this
We'll even be able to possess three quarters of the western
farms as well as all the money in the country.
The farmers will then
become land tenants only, just like in England." - confidential banker's
The farmer is the man
The farmer is the
Lives on credit till the fall
interest rates so high
a wonder he don't die
the mortgage man's the one that gets it
Populist Movement poem
Western farmer, at present prices of grain, and beef, and other produce, can
pay wages, pay taxes, and support his family in comfort - much less pay off his
Some of the
newspapers are already
saying that the farm laborer of the Northwest must submit to a reduction of
Other newspapers declare that
our farmers must lose their farm, and let us have the Tenant Farm System that
prevails in Europe.
Conversing with a banker in Kansas,
a very clever gentleman, I
spoke to him of the great evils that would follow the loss of the farm.
He laughed pleasantly, and said, "I think the farmers will have to lose
When the farms have been devoured, it will be an easy
matter to finish the merchants and grocers of the country towns." - L.B.
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