hear us and make us strong.
hear us and give us
Spirit of the East,
send us your wisdom.
Spirit of the South,
we tread your path of life.
Spirit of the West,
may we journey wide
Spirit of the
purify us with your
"America will never be destroyed from
If we falter and lose our
freedoms, it will be because we
We the people are
the rightful masters of
Congress and the Courts, not to overthrow the Constitution but to
overthrow the men who pervert
I have the Confederacy before me and the bankers
behind me, and for America I fear the bankers most." - Abraham
For several years before his election to
the presidency, Abraham Lincoln took
blue mass pills for
treatment of chronic
Lincoln was known to have experienced neurological
symptoms, including insomnia,
rage attacks, suggesting he
suffered mercury poisoning.
In 2001, a study led by renowned
public-health investigator Norbert Hirschhorn recreated a typical formulation,
concluding that the quantity of blue mass that Lincoln likely took would have
delivered "a daily dose of mercury exceeding the current Environmental
Protection Agency safety
standard by nearly 9000 times," which may have adversely affected his
"The division of the US into federations of equal force was
decided long before the Civil
War by the high
financial powers of Europe.
These bankers were afraid that the US,
if they remained in one block and as one nation, would attain economic and
financial independence, which would upset their financial domination
over the world.
The voice of the Rothschilds
they sent their
emissaries into the field to exploit the question of
slavery and to open
an abyss between the two sections
of the Union." - German chancellor
When Abraham Lincoln is
assassinated there is speculation he is preparing to
finance and set up an American
central bank with the ability to issue
currency controlled by Americans.
John Wilkes Booth, is
a pawn of foreign finacial interests.
Abraham Lincoln's desire for
government control of the Confederated States of America directly caused
the deaths of nearly a million people.
Abraham Lincoln initial idea of
freeing the slaves was meant to
hasten the collapse of the Confederated States of America.
the early weeks of the Civil War, thousands of fugitive slaves or
"contrabands" flee to Washington, DC.
The federal government responded
by crowding the Black
men, women, and
hastily prepared contraband
camps that supplied insufficient food and clothing, had little or no
sanitation, and were
breeding grounds for
Abraham Lincoln formulated a plan to
repatriate the enslaved Blacks back
This plan is abandoned as
Jay Cooke, a Philadelphia
banker and financier, is a close
friend and advisor of
Salmon P. Chase to Abraham
Lincoln, New York, April 15, 1864
My dear Sir,
Debt can not be
increased indefinitely by selling
US treasury bonds
& issuing promissary notes; and the time has come when
taxation and retrenchment
must play their parts.
retrenchment a uniform
national currency is most important.
This can be accomplished only
through the passage of the National Banking Law now before Congress.
The National Government will need to pay interest on debt, current
expences, and, as long as the war lasts,
its extraordinary expences,
vast sums from taxes.
Duties on imports are the only exclusive
resource of the Nation as distinguished from the States.
Why should not
the National Banks & their property and franchises be added?
National Banking bill should be followed by the bill to tax local bank
circulation & prohibit after some fixed period its further
These two bills will give us what we must have, if success is
wanted, a national currency.
Yours truly SP Chase
Henderson to Abraham Lincoln, April 27, 1864
Chase's management of the finances of the nation is contrary to the dictates of
sound policy or common
The sudden decline in stocks in the first week of September
1863, and the rise in the premium of Gold from 127 to 157 in 5 weeks, because
Mr. Chase's friends were short of stocks, should have had its effect upon you
to dismiss such a Secretary of the
Mr. Chase benefitted his friends
by asking the National Bank of New
York, National Bank of
Boston and National
Bank of Philadelphia to loan 50 million, when they are already choked with
US treasury bonds.
disturbance to the money
market from this loan resulted in a panic, which put stocks down 25% and a
rise the premium of Gold of 30% in 5 weeks.
The value of US treasury
bonds were injured by the means Chase used, and the US currency depreciated 15
to 20%, which it has never recovered.
Chase was then induced to sell 5
or 6 millions of US Gold, - laid apart, as Congress directed, to pay the
interest on the National Debt.
a breach of faith, which you
will find will injure the US treasury bond value.
Six million of US Gold
was obtained from the Govt at about 165 when the price in the market was from
170 to 180.
Chase sold on Thursday, Friday & Saturday 14th, 15th
& 16th 8 million US Gold from 166 to 185 and two million US Sterling from 5
to 12% under normal exchange rates.
the cheques for several millions, say 6 or 7 millions Dollars, & present
them to City Bank all at once
& demand Greenbacks or legal tender money. He had previously made this
money scarce, temporarily, for God knows there is enough of it, by selling
Duties for paper money against [Cost?]; & then he & his friend
predicted that the State Banks must fail.
US treasury bonds went down
10% frightened at such abominable action of Chase.
The Banks are aroused
to the unprincipled action of Chase's stock-jobbing friends and will resist the
The Gold Market only went down till Chase stopped
How will Chase get back this Gold?
By paying 200 or
over for it. Why?
Nearly every US treasury bonds will come back from
Yours -- James Henderson
The Cherokee people live in
southwestern North Carolina, southeastern Tennessee, and parts of western South
Carolina and northeastern Georgia before they are forcibly
Cherokee language is a Southern Iroquoian language and part
of the Iroquoian language family.
1710 to 1715
Cherokee and Chickasaw ally with the British.
1721 Cherokee cede lands in South Carolina.
epidemics break out among the Cherokee.
Half the population is dead
within a year.
suicide due to losses
or disfigurement from the disease.
Jeffrey Amherst and Smallpox Blankets
1786 Before the forcible relocation to Oklahoma many Cherokees relocate
to Arkansas, Missouri and Texas.
The Cherokee, along with people of
other nations such as the Choctaw and Chickasaw, began settling along the
Arkansas and Red Rivers.
The Dakota are first recorded to have resided
at the source of the Mississippi River during the seventeenth
Rarely mentioned is the radical shift in life style that allows
the Native Americans to tame the wide open spaces of the plains - the
The survivers of the decimated Six Nations and Southern tribes followed the
rivers onto the plains mingled with other tribes and became the
1862 Great Sioux
Nation, Oceti Sakowin or Seven Council Fires, stretched from the Big Woods of
Minnesota to the Rocky Mountains.
There were seven Sioux tribes,
including three western tribes, collectively called the Lakota, and four
eastern tribes living in Minnesota and the eastern Dakotas called the
"Several Minnesota Dakota Sioux tribes of Native Americans
revolt against the US.
General John Pope was sent to quell the
General John Pope initiated military tribunals and sentenced
303 warriors to be
executed by hanging.
Some trials lasted less than 5 minutes. Abraham
Lincoln, needing the vote in Minnesota, selected 38 individuals who were
Abraham Lincoln carried Minnesota in the next election
and is the only president to order a mass hanging." - Robert
1862 US breaks the treaty with the Dakota Sioux after a few Santee men
a white farmer and his family
and begins proceedings to remove the Dakota entirely from Minnesota.
bounty of $25 per scalp is paid.
"At the onset of the Dakota War,
Sarah Wakefield's husband decided that she should travel with her children to
Fort Ridgely. George Gleason, a clerk at the Lower Agency warehouse, drove
Wakefield, 33, and her children -- a baby daughter, Lucy, and a 4-year-old son,
Their journey was interrupted by two Indians: Hapa, the man who
would antagonize Wakefield throughout her captivity, and Chaska, the man who
became Wakefield's savior. After stopping Gleason and Wakefield, Hapa wishes to
kill both of them. Hapa kills Gleason.
"I begged Hapa to spare me,"
Wakefield wrote, "put out my hands towards him, but he struck them down. I
thought then my doom was
sealed and if it had not been for Chaska, my bones would now be bleaching
on that prairie, and my children with Little Crow."
Hapa to spare Wakefield, and she was taken as a war captive. Wakefield spent
six weeks living among the Mdewakanton Dakota, often in danger from a few
Dakota who felt captives should be killed. Chaska and his family intervened.
Wakefield was still nursing her daughter.
Weak and unaccustomed to living
outdoors Wakefield describes various ways that Chaska and his family
protected her from murder,
starvation and sexual
assault. When he felt it was safe, Chaska brought Wakefield and her
children to General Henry Sibley and his troops.
Wakefield spoke out
for Chaska's good deeds maintaining that Chaska had been her protector and had
not killed George Gleason.
There were 392
trials for alleged war
crimes committed by Dakota during the war.
Three hundred and three Dakota
men were sentenced to hang, while their families were brought to a prison camp
near Fort Snelling, according to "The War in Words" by Katheryn Zabelle
After pardoning many of the accused,
Abraham Lincoln orders the execution of 38 Dakota men.
Despite his innocence, and
despite Wakefield's attempts to intervene, Chaska was convicted of killing
He was sentenced to hang on Dec. 26, 1862, in
"As a final cry for justice, Wakefield published her work,
"Six Weeks in the Sioux Tepees: A Narrative of Indian Captivity," in
1863 and 1864 in Minnesota. Through her
challenged not only her
role as a submissive, subordinate woman, but also the government-endorsed, or
accepted, version of the Dakota War. Vindicating both herself and the
Dakota, Wakefield describes the
exploitation of the
Dakota people and the wrongful
hanging of an innocent man, Chaska, her protector." - Corey
No Hero to Native Americans
Oct 20, 1862 First
Presidential Executive Order
Executive Order Establishing a Provisional
Court in Louisiana
1,600 Dakota Sioux are held in a fortified camp on
Pike Island below Fort Snelling.
1864 Battle of
The Sioux, a deeply spiritual people, share Wakan
Tanka or the Great
visions are cultivated and people commune with the spirit realm through
November 29 A 675-man force of
the Third Colorado Cavalry led by US Volunteers Colonel John Chivington attack
and destroy a village of
Cheyenne and Arapaho in Colorado Territory, killing and mutilating an estimated
163 Native Americans, about two-thirds women and children.
was a Methodist preacher, Freemason and an opponent of slavery.
think of that dog Chivington and his dirty hounds, up thar at Sand Creek. His
men shot down squaws, and blew the brains out of little innocent children. You
call sich soldiers Christians, do ye? And Indians savages? What der yer s'pose
our Heavenly Father, who made both them and us, thinks of these things?" - Kit
Carson to Col. James Rusling
Some of Chivington's men were drunk and
many of the soldier casualties were due to friendly fire.
his men dressed their weapons, hats and gear with scalps and other body parts,
including human fetuses and male and female genitalia.
display these in the Denver Apollo Theater and area saloons.
massacre disrupted the traditional Cheyenne power structure, due to the deaths
of eight members of the Council of Forty-Four.
White Antelope, One Eye,
Yellow Wolf, Big Man, Bear Man, War Bonnet, Spotted Crow, and Bear Robe were
all killed, as were the headmen of some of the Cheyenne military
Once the details of the massacre became widely known the US
sent a blue ribbon commission and the Treaty of the Little Arkansas is signed
18661868 Red Cloud's
The Sioux consider the
Black Hills to be sacred.
US Fort Laramie
Treaty, exempting the Black Hills from
all white settlement
1872 Lieutenant Colonel George
Crook and the 5th Cavalry attack the Yavapai and Apache stronghold of Skeleton
Cave, located in Salt River Canyon, Arizona.
75 Yavapai and Apache
warriors are killed, including Chief Nanni-chaddi, while another 34 were
captured the Battle of Salt River Canyon or the Skeleton Cave
1874 Gold is discovered in the Black
Grant administration advertises gold in the Black Hills to
relieve the pressure of the Panic of
Rush starts in the Black Hills.
Commissioner of Indian Affairs declares
non-reservation tribes of Sioux
June 15, 1876
Little Big Horn
The 7th Cavalry, a veteran organization
combined after the Civil
War, under General George A. Custer is requested to force the Lakota Sioux
bands onto the newly
delineated tribal reservation.
Thousands of miners in the
Black Hills make it the most densely populated part of Dakota
1890 US adjusts the Great Sioux
Reservation of South Dakota, the majority of the state, into five smaller
reservations to accommodate homesteaders and in accordance with the "policy of
breaking up tribal relationships" and "conforming Indians to the
white man's ways, peaceably
if they will, or forcibly if they must."
Tribes are separated into
family units on 320 acre plots, forced to farm,
raise livestock, and
send their children to boarding schools that
forbade any inclusion of Native American traditional
culture and language.
"Our communal sin is the bald lie that we all
live and perpetuate from moment to moment, year upon year, from our past to the
days ahead: the misbegotten belief
that we are a peaceful people." - Randall Amster
December 15, 1890 Fearing the spread of the
Ghost Dance movement the US orders
the arrest of Sitting Bull at Standing Rock.
Sitting Bull and eight
of warriors are shot dead at the Standing Rock reservation by agency
December 23 350 people leave Miniconjou
village concealed by darkness to begin their 150 mile trek through the frozen
Badlands to the Pine Ridge Agency.
Troops of Major Samuel M. Whitside and the Seventh Calvary (General George
Custer) drive Red Cloud and Big Foot to the bank of Wounded Knee Creek.
Interrogated sleeplessly throughout the night soldiers
drink and revel all night in
celebration of the capture of Big Foot.
Colonel James Forsyth
arrives with reinforcements taking command of the situation and stationing four
cannon firing two pound explosive shells at a rate of fifty per minute on the
A rumor panics the Indians - they are to be deported to
Indian Territory (Oklahoma), reputed for worse living conditions than any
Soldiers begin stripping the Indians of weapons, further
While soldiers search, some Indians began singing
Ghost Dance songs, and one (possibly the medicine man Yellow Bird) throws dirt
in a ceremonial gesture.
A gun discharges.
Although no one is
injured, the soldiers immediately spray the now unarmed Indians with the four
Hotchkiss revolving cannon
from the ridge above.
Most of the Indian fatalities occurred during the
initial ten to twenty minutes, but sporadic firing lasted for several hours as
cavalrymen pursue Indians.
Twenty-nine soldiers among the Sioux perish
from "friendly fire".
Indian survivors remarked that the soldiers cried
out "Remember the Little Bighorn" as they hunted human prey - they believed the
massacre to be revenge for Custer's annihilation at the Battle of the Little
Bighorn in 1876 (Santee Sioux, Sid Byrd, from oral histories of several
29 Twenty-three soldiers from the Seventh Calvary, said to be drinking,
receive the Congressional Medal of Honor for slaying defenseless Indians with
overwhelming firepower from the four Hotchkiss revolving cannon.
the rain of ammunition
ceased, over 300 Lakota people lay dead from gunfire,
cannon fire, or manual
butchering within the encampment and within adjacent ravines up to two miles
The dead were Lakota men who had been disarmed before the weapons
fire began, women, many with babes in arms or waiting to be born, and
The soldiers walked away from their
crime against humanity and left
the dead where they lay. That night, the
sky cried snow and the
warm winter wind of
peace was supplanted by the cold
winter wind of grief.
Four days later the soldiers came and loaded
the dead like cordwood in wagons and hauled their loads to hastily dug mass
graves, where the dead were thrown in - the bodies of men, women and children
whose spirits walked the encampment and ravines, wailing.
Medals of Honor for "bravery" were awarded to the soldiers who participated
in that heinous murder for
their parts in fighting the
allegedly hostile "war parties" attacking them that day." - Wanbli
Supreme Court rules that
the Black Hills were illegally
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