will never be destroyed from the outside.
If we falter and lose our
freedoms, it will be because we
We the people are
the rightful masters of
Congress and the Courts, not to
overthrow the Constitution but to
overthrow the men who pervert
I have the Confederacy before me and the bankers
behind me, and for America I fear the bankers most." - Abraham
"The division of the US into federations
of equal force was decided long before the
Civil War by the high
financial powers of Europe.
These bankers were afraid that the
US, if they remained in one block and as one nation, would attain economic and
financial independence, which would upset their financial domination over the
voice of the Rothschilds prevailed.
they sent their
emissaries into the field to exploit the question of
slavery and to open an abyss
between the two sections of the Union." - German chancellor
Lincoln is assassinated there is
speculation he is
preparing to abandon
international finance and set up an American central bank with the
ability to issue currency controlled by
John Wilkes Booth, is
a pawn of foreign finacial
Abraham Lincoln's desire for
dominant federal government control of the Confederated States of America
directly caused the deaths of nearly a million people.
initial idea of freeing the slaves was meant to hasten the collapse of the
Confederated States of America.
the early weeks of the Civil War, thousands of fugitive slaves or "contrabands"
fled to Washington, DC.
The federal government responded by
crowding the African-American men, women, and children into hastily prepared
contraband camps that supplied insufficient food and clothing, had little or no
sanitation, and were
breeding grounds for infectious diseases.
Abraham Lincoln formulated a plan to repatriate the
enslaved African Americans back to
This plan was abandoned as unfeasibly
Jay Cooke, a
Philadelphia banker and financier, is a close
friend and advisor of
From Salmon P. Chase to Abraham
Lincoln, New York, April 15, 1864
My dear Sir,
Debt can not be
increased indefinitely by selling US treasury bonds & issuing promissary
notes; and the time has come when
taxation and retrenchment
must play their parts.
taxation and retrenchment
a uniform national currency is
This can be accomplished only through the passage
of the National Banking Law now before Congress.
Government will need to pay interest on debt, current expences, and, as long as
the war lasts, its
extraordinary expences, vast sums from taxes.
Duties on imports are
the only exclusive resource of the Nation as distinguished from the States.
Why should not the National Banks & their property and franchises
The National Banking bill should be followed by the bill to
tax local bank circulation & prohibit after some fixed period its further
These two bills will give us what
we must have, if success is wanted, a national currency.
Yours truly SP
From James Henderson to Abraham Lincoln, April 27, 1864
Mr. Chase's management of the finances of the nation
is contrary to the dictates of sound policy or
sudden decline in stocks in the first week of September 1863, and the rise in
the premium of Gold from 127 to 157 in 5 weeks, because Mr. Chase's friends
were short of stocks, should have had its effect upon you to dismiss such a
Secretary of the Treasury.
Mr. Chase benefitted his friends by asking
the National Bank of New York, National Bank of Boston and National Bank of
Philadelphia to loan 50 million, when they are already choked with US treasury
The disturbance to the money market from this loan resulted in a
panic, which put stocks down 25% and a rise the premium of Gold of 30% in 5
The value of US treasury bonds were injured by the means Chase
used, and the US currency depreciated 15 to 20%, which it has never recovered.
Chase was then induced to sell 5 or 6 millions of US Gold, - laid
apart, as Congress directed, to pay the interest on the National Debt.
This is a breach of faith, which you will find will injure the US
treasury bond value.
Six million of US Gold was obtained from the Govt
at about 165 when the price in the market was from 170 to 180.
sold on Thursday, Friday & Saturday 14th, 15th & 16th 8 million US Gold
from 166 to 185 and two million US Sterling from 5 to 12% under normal exchange
To keep the cheques for several
millions, say 6 or 7 millions Dollars, & present them to
City Bank all at once
& demand Greenbacks or legal tender money. He had previously made this
money scarce, temporarily, for God knows there is enough of it, by selling
Duties for paper money against [Cost?]; & then he & his friend
predicted that the State Banks must fail.
US treasury bonds went down
10% frightened at such abominable action of Chase.
The Banks are aroused
to the unprincipled action of Chase's stock-jobbing friends and will resist the
The Gold Market only went down till Chase stopped
How will Chase get back this Gold?
By paying 200 or
over for it. Why?
Nearly every US treasury bonds will come back from
Yours -- James Henderson
"In 1862 several Minnesota Dakota Sioux tribes of
Native Americans revolted against the US. General John Pope was sent to quell
General John Pope initiated military tribunals and
sentenced 303 warriors
to be executed by hanging.
Some trials lasted less than 5 minutes.
Abraham Lincoln, needing the vote in Minnesota, selected 38 individuals who
were promptly hanged.
Abraham Lincoln carried Minnesota in the next
election and is the only president to order a mass hanging." - Robert
The Cherokee people
lived in southwestern North Carolina, southeastern Tennessee, and parts of
western South Carolina and northeastern Georgia before they were forcibly
Cherokee language is a Southern Iroquoian language and part
of the Iroquoian language family.
1710 to 1715
Cherokee and Chickasaw ally with the British.
1721 Cherokee cede lands in South Carolina.
1738 and 1739 Smallpox epidemics break out among
Half their population is dead within a year.
Hundreds of other Cherokee committed
suicide due to their losses
and disfigurement from the disease.
Jeffrey Amherst and Smallpox Blankets
1786 Before the forcible relocation to Oklahoma many Cherokees relocate
to Arkansas, Missouri and Texas. The Cherokee, along with people of other
nations such as the Choctaw and Chickasaw, began settling along the Arkansas
and Red Rivers.
The Dakota are first recorded to have resided at the
source of the Mississippi River during the seventeenth century.
mentioned is the radical shift in life style that allows the Native Americans
to tame the wide open spaces of the plains - the horse.
The survivers of
the decimated East Coast and Southern tribes followed the rivers onto the
plains mingled with other tribes and became the Sioux.
1862 Great Sioux Nation, Oceti Sakowin or Seven Council Fires,
stretched from the Big Woods of Minnesota to the Rocky Mountains. There were
seven Sioux tribes, including three western tribes, collectively called the
Lakota, and four eastern tribes living in Minnesota and the eastern Dakotas
called the Dakota.
1862 US breaks the treaty with the Dakota Sioux after a few Santee men
murder a white farmer and his family and begins proceedings to remove the
Dakota entirely from Minnesota.
A bounty of $25 per scalp is paid.
"At the onset of the Dakota War, Sarah Wakefield's husband decided
that she should travel with her children to Fort Ridgely. George Gleason, a
clerk at the Lower Agency warehouse, drove Wakefield, 33, and her children -- a
baby daughter, Lucy, and a 4-year-old son, James.
Their journey was
interrupted by two Indians: Hapa, the man who would antagonize Wakefield
throughout her captivity, and Chaska, the man who became Wakefield's savior.
After stopping Gleason and Wakefield, Hapa wishes to kill both of them. Hapa
"I begged Hapa to spare me," Wakefield wrote, "put out my
hands towards him, but he struck them down. I thought then my doom was sealed
and if it had not been for Chaska, my bones would now be bleaching on that
prairie, and my children with Little Crow."
Chaska persuaded Hapa to
spare Wakefield, and she was taken as a war captive. Wakefield spent six weeks
living among the Mdewakanton Dakota, often in danger from a few Dakota who felt
captives should be killed. Chaska and his family intervened. Wakefield was
still nursing her daughter.
Weak and unaccustomed to living outdoors
Wakefield describes various ways that Chaska and his family protected her from
murder, starvation and
sexual assault. When he felt it was safe, Chaska brought Wakefield and her
children to General Henry Sibley and his troops.
Wakefield spoke out
for Chaska's good deeds maintaining that Chaska had been her protector and had
not killed George Gleason.
There were 392 trials for alleged war crimes
committed by Dakota during the war.
Three hundred and three Dakota men were sentenced to hang, while their
families were brought to a prison camp near Fort Snelling, according to "The
War in Words" by Katheryn Zabelle Derounian-Stodola.
many of the accused, President Abraham Lincoln ordered the execution of 38
innocence, and despite Wakefield's attempts to intervene, Chaska was
convicted of killing George Gleason.
He was sentenced to hang on Dec.
26, 1862, in Mankato.
"As a final cry for
justice, Wakefield published her work, "Six Weeks in the Sioux Tepees: A
Narrative of Indian Captivity," in 1863 and 1864 in Minnesota. Through her
challenged not only her
role as a submissive, subordinate woman, but also the government-endorsed, or
accepted, version of the Dakota War. Vindicating both herself and the
Dakota, Wakefield describes the
the Dakota people and the wrongful hanging of an innocent man, Chaska, her
protector." - Corey Hickner-Johnson
No Hero to Native Americans
1,600 Dakota Sioux are held in a fortified camp on
Pike Island below Fort Snelling.
1864 Battle of Killdeer Mountain.
The Sioux, a deeply spiritual people, share Wakan Tanka or
the Great Mystery.
are cultivated and people commune with the spirit realm through
18661868 Red Cloud's War
Sioux consider the Black Hills to be sacred.
US Fort Laramie Treaty,
exempting the Black Hills from all white settlement forever.
1874 Gold is discovered in the Black
Grant administration advertises gold in the Black Hills to
relieve the pressure of the Panic of 1873.
1875 Gold Rush starts in the Black Hills.
of Indian Affairs declares non-reservation tribes of Sioux subject to
June 15, 1876 Battle of Little Big Horn
Cavalry, a veteran organization forged just after the
Civil War, under General
George A. Custer is requested to force the Lakota Sioux bands onto the newly
delineated tribal reservation.
1880 Thousands of
miners in the Black Hills make it the most densely populated part of Dakota
1890 US adjusts the Great Sioux
Reservation of South Dakota, the majority of the state, into five smaller
reservations to accommodate homesteaders and in accordance with the "policy of
breaking up tribal relationships" and "conforming Indians to the
white man's ways, peaceably if they will, or forcibly if they
Tribes are separated into family units on 320 acre plots, forced
to farm, raise livestock, and send their children to boarding schools that
forbade any inclusion of Native American traditional
culture and language.
December 15, 1890
Fearing the spread of the Ghost Dance movement the US ordered the arrest of
Sitting Bull at Standing Rock and he is shot dead.
December 29, 1890 The Hunkpapa, of the camp of Sitting Bull,
flee south onto the Cheyenne River Reservation,
The newly reanimated 7th
Cavalry catches them at Wounded Knee, confiscates their weapons after they
surrend, and massacres 300 people at Wounded Knee ending the Sioux-US
"When the rain of ammunition ceased, over 300 Lakota people lay
dead from gunfire, cannon fire, or manual butchering within the encampment and
within adjacent ravines up to two miles away.
The dead were Lakota men
who had been disarmed before the weapons fire began, women, many with babes in
arms or waiting to be born, and children.
The soldiers walked away from
their crime against humanity and left the dead where they lay. That night, the
sky cried snow and the warm winter
wind of peace was supplanted by the cold
winter wind of
Four days later
the soldiers came and loaded the dead like cordwood in wagons, and hauled their
loads to hastily dug mass graves, where the dead were thrown in - the bodies of
men, women, and children whose spirits walked the encampment
and ravines, wailing.
Medals of Honor for "bravery" were awarded to the soldiers who participated
in that heinous murder for
their parts in fighting the allegedly hostile "war parties" attacking them that
day." - Wanbli Sapa
Supreme Court rules
that the Black Hills were illegally taken.
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