"America will never be destroyed from the
outside. If we falter and lose our freedoms, it will be because we destroyed
We the people are the rightful masters of
both Congress and the courts, not to overthrow the Constitution but to
overthrow the men who pervert the Constitution.
I have the Confederacy before me and the
bankers behind me, and for America I fear the bankers
"The division of the US into federations of equal force was
decided long before the Civil War by the high
financial powers of Europe. These bankers were afraid that the US, if they
remained in one block and as one nation, would attain economic and financial
independence, which would upset their financial domination over the world. The
voice of the Rothschilds prevailed. Therefore they sent their emissaries into
the field to exploit the question of slavery and to open an abyss between
the two sections of the Union." - German chancellor
When Abraham Lincoln was
assassinated there is speculation he was preparing to abandon international
finance and set up an American central bank with the ability to issue currency
controlled by Americans.
His assassin, John Wilkes Booth, was simply a
pawn of foreign finacial interests.
Lincoln's desire for dominant federal government control of the Confederated
States of America directly caused the deaths of nearly a million people.
Abraham Lincoln initial idea of freeing the
slaves was meant to hasten the
collapse of the Confederated States of America.
Beginning in the early weeks of the Civil War, thousands
of fugitive slaves or "contrabands" fled to Washington, DC.
federal government responded by crowding the African-American men, women, and
children into hastily prepared contraband camps that supplied insufficient food
and clothing, had little or no sanitation, and were breeding grounds for
Abraham Lincoln formulated a plan to repatriate
the enslaved African Americans back
This plan was abandoned as unfeasibly expensive.
Jay Cooke, a
Philadelphia banker and financier, is a close friend and advisor of
Salmon P. Chase
to Abraham Lincoln, New York, April 15, 1864
My dear Sir,
can not be increased indefinitely by selling US treasury bonds & issuing
promissary notes; and the time has come when taxation and retrenchment must
play their parts.
Next to taxation and retrenchment a uniform national
currency is most important.
This can be accomplished only through the
passage of the National Banking Law now before Congress.
Government will need to pay interest on debt, current expences, and, as long as
the war lasts, its extraordinary expences, vast sums from taxes.
on imports are the only exclusive resource of the Nation as distinguished from
Why should not the National Banks & their property and
franchises be added?
The National Banking bill should be followed by the
bill to tax local bank circulation & prohibit after some fixed period its
These two bills will give us what we must have, if
success is wanted, a national currency.
Yours trulyS P
From James Henderson to Abraham Lincoln, April 27,
management of the finances of the nation is contrary to the dictates of sound
policy or common
The sudden decline in stocks in the first week of September
1863, and the rise in the premium of Gold from 127 to 157 in 5 weeks, because
friends were short of stocks, should have had its effect upon you to dismiss
such a Secretary of the Treasury.
Mr. Chase benefitted his friends by
asking the National Bank of New York, National Bank of Boston and National Bank
of Philadelphia to loan 50 million, when they are already choked with US
The disturbance to the money market from this loan
resulted in a panic,
which put stocks down 25% and a rise the premium of Gold of 30% in 5
The value of US treasury bonds were injured by the means Chase
used, and the US currency depreciated 15 to 20%, which it has never recovered.
Chase was then induced to sell 5 or 6 millions of US Gold, - laid
apart, as Congress directed, to pay the interest on the National Debt.
This is a breach of faith, which you will find will injure the US
treasury bond value.
Six million of US Gold was obtained from the Govt
at about 165 when the price in the market was from 170 to 180.
sold on Thursday, Friday & Saturday 14th, 15th & 16th 8 million US Gold
from 166 to 185 and two million US Sterling from 5 to 12% under normal exchange
to keep the cheques for several millions, say 6 or 7
millions Dollars, & present them to the City Banks all at once & demand
Greenbacks or legal tender money. He had previously made this money scarce,
temporarily, for God knows there is enough of it, by selling Duties for paper
money against [Cost?]; & then he & his friend predicted that the State
Banks must fail.
US treasury bonds went down 10% frightened at such
abominable action of Chase.
The Banks are aroused to the unprincipled
action of Chase's stock-jobbing friends and will resist the National
The Gold Market only went down till Chase stopped
How will Chase get back this Gold?
By paying 200 or
over for it. Why?
Nearly every US treasury bonds will come back from
Yours -- James Henderson
"In 1862 several Minnesota Dakota Sioux tribes of
Native Americans revolted
against the US. General John Pope was sent to quell the uprising.
General John Pope initiated military tribunals and sentenced 303
warriors to be executed by hanging.
Some trials lasted less than 5
minutes. Abraham Lincoln, needing the vote in Minnesota, selected 38
individuals who were promptly hanged.
Abraham Lincoln carried Minnesota
in the next election and is the only president to order a mass hanging." -
The Cherokee people
lived in southwestern North Carolina, southeastern Tennessee, and parts of
western South Carolina and northeastern Georgia before they were forcibly
Cherokee language is a Southern Iroquoian language and part
of the Iroquoian language family.
1710 to 1715
Cherokee and Chickasaw ally with the British.
1721 Cherokee cede lands in South Carolina.
1738 and 1739 Smallpox epidemics break out among the Cherokee.
Half their population is dead within a year. Hundreds of other Cherokee
committed suicide due to their losses and disfigurement from the
1775 to 1786 Before the forcible
relocation to Oklahoma many Cherokees relocate to Arkansas, Missouri and Texas.
The Cherokee, along with people of other nations such as the Choctaw and
Chickasaw, began settling along the Arkansas and Red Rivers.
are first recorded to have resided at the source of the Mississippi River
during the seventeenth century.
Rarely mentioned is the radical shift in
life style that allows the Native Americans to tame the wide open spaces of the
plains - the horse.
The survivers of the decimated East Coast and
Southern tribes followed the rivers onto the plains mingled with other tribes
and became the Sioux.
1862 Great Sioux Nation,
Oceti Sakowin or Seven Council Fires, stretched from the Big Woods of Minnesota
to the Rocky Mountains. There were seven Sioux tribes, including three western tribes,
collectively called the Lakota, and four eastern tribes
living in Minnesota and the eastern
Dakotas called the Dakota.
August 17, 1862 US
breaks the treaty with the Dakota Sioux after a few Santee men murder a white
farmer and his family and begins proceedings to remove the Dakota entirely from
A bounty of $25 per scalp is paid.
"At the onset
of the Dakota War, Sarah Wakefield's husband decided that she should travel
with her children to Fort Ridgely. George Gleason, a clerk at the Lower Agency
warehouse, drove Wakefield, 33, and her children -- a baby daughter, Lucy, and
a 4-year-old son, James.
Their journey was interrupted by two Indians:
Hapa, the man who would antagonize Wakefield throughout her captivity, and
Chaska, the man who became Wakefield's savior. After stopping Gleason and
Wakefield, Hapa wishes to kill both of them. Hapa kills Gleason.
begged Hapa to spare me," Wakefield wrote, "put out my hands towards him, but
he struck them down. I thought then my doom was sealed and if it had not been
for Chaska, my bones would now be bleaching on that prairie, and my children
with Little Crow."
Chaska persuaded Hapa to spare Wakefield, and she
was taken as a war captive. Wakefield spent six weeks living among the
Mdewakanton Dakota, often in danger from a few Dakota who felt captives should
be killed. Chaska and his family intervened. Wakefield was still nursing her
Weak and unaccustomed to living outdoors Wakefield describes
various ways that Chaska and his family protected her from
murder, starvation and sexual
assault. When he felt it was safe, Chaska brought Wakefield and her children to
General Henry Sibley and his troops.
Wakefield spoke out for Chaska's
good deeds maintaining that Chaska had been her protector and had not killed
There were 392 trials for alleged war crimes committed
by Dakota during the war.
Three hundred and three Dakota men were
sentenced to hang, while their families were brought to a prison camp near Fort
Snelling, according to "The War in Words" by Katheryn Zabelle
After pardoning many of the accused, President
Abraham Lincoln ordered the execution of 38 Dakota men.
innocence, and despite Wakefield's attempts to intervene, Chaska was convicted
of killing George Gleason.
He was sentenced to hang on Dec. 26, 1862,
"As a final cry for justice,
Wakefield published her work, "Six Weeks in the Sioux Tepees: A Narrative of
Indian Captivity," in 1863 and 1864 in Minnesota. Through her
challenged not only her role as a submissive, subordinate woman, but also the
government-endorsed, or accepted, version of the Dakota War. Vindicating both
herself and the Dakota, Wakefield describes the exploitation of the Dakota
people and the wrongful hanging of an innocent man, Chaska, her protector." -
1,600 Dakota Sioux are held in a fortified camp on
Pike Island below Fort Snelling.
1864 Battle of
Sioux, a deeply spiritual people, share
Wakan Tanka or the Great
Mystery. Religious visions
are cultivated and the people communed with the spirit realm through music and
18661868 Red Cloud's
Sioux considered the
Black Hills to be
US Fort Laramie Treaty,
exempting the Black Hills from all
white settlement forever.
Gold is discovered in the
Grant administration advertises
gold in the
Black Hills to relieve the pressure of
the Panic of
1875 Gold Rush starts in the
Indian Affairs declares non-reservation tribes of
Sioux subject to arrest.
June 15, 1876 Battle of Little Big Horn
Cavalry, a veteran organization created just after the
under General George A. Custer is requested to force the Lakota Sioux bands
onto the newly delineated tribal reservation.
1880 Thousands of miners in the
Black Hills make it the most densely
populated part of Dakota Territory.
adjusts the Great Sioux Reservation of South Dakota, the majority of the state,
into five smaller reservations to accommodate homesteaders and in accordance
with the "policy of breaking up
tribal relationships" and
"conforming Indians to the
white man's ways, peaceably if they will, or forcibly if they
Tribes are separated into family units on 320 acre plots, forced
to farm, raise livestock, and send their children to boarding schools that
forbade any inclusion of Native American traditional
culture and language.
December 15, 1890 Fearing
the spread of the Ghost Dance movement the US ordered the arrest of Sitting
Bull at Standing Rock and he is shot dead.
1890 The Hunkpapa, of the camp of Sitting Bull, flee south onto the
Cheyenne River Reservation,
The newly reanimated 7th Cavalry catches
them at Wounded Knee, confiscates their weapons after they surrend, and
massacres 300 people at Wounded Knee ending the Sioux-US war.
rain of ammunition ceased, over 300 Lakota people lay dead from gunfire, cannon
fire, or manual butchering within the encampment and within adjacent ravines up
to two miles away.
The dead were Lakota men who had been disarmed
before the weapons fire began, women, many with babes in arms or waiting to be
born, and children.
The soldiers walked away from their crime against
humanity and left the dead where they lay. That night, the
sky cried snow and the warm winter
wind of peace
was supplanted by the cold winter wind of
Four days later the
soldiers came and loaded the dead like cordwood in wagons, and hauled their
loads to hastily dug mass graves, where the dead were thrown in - the bodies of
men, women, and children whose spirits walked the encampment and
Medals of Honor for "bravery" were awarded to the soldiers who participated
in that heinous murder for their parts in fighting the allegedly hostile "war
parties" attacking them that day." - Wanbli Sapa
US Supreme Court rules that the Black Hills were illegally
back to stacks
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