Articles of Confederation and
Perpetual Union was penned in 1777 soon after the Declaration of
Independence and existed as the only constitution until 1788.
Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was an agreement among the 13
founding states that established the United States of America as a
confederation of sovereign states.
On February 21, 1787, the Congress of
the Confederation delivered a
resolution authorizing a Philadelphia constitutional convention but with an
important limitation: "for the sole and express purpose of revising the
Articles of Confederation and reporting to Congress and the several
Prior to the Philadelphia constitutional convention,
Framers wrote and distributed approximately 85 "Federalist Papers" to extol the
virtues of an entirely new, second constitution for the people of America.
By doing this, they hoped to reverse the prevailing negative public
opinion and increase the public's confidence in such a plan.
hid behind a pseudonym when writing their Federalist Papers; each was signed as
"Publius," meaning "friend of the people" (or public).
Many of the
dissenting voices among the free inhabitants of the several states regarded the
upcoming Philadelphia constitutional convention as potentially illegal.
They well-understood from the Federalist Papers the
Federalist goal of
creating a new constitution and not simply revising the existing one.
In the minds of the free inhabitants, the accomplishment of Federalist
goals could unravel the freedoms and liberties they had gained under the
Articles of Confederation and won by the American Revolution.
Philadelphia constitutional convention, held from May into September 1787,
exceeded the authority given it.
Instead of revising the Articles of
Confederation they forged an entirely new constitution.
Constitution of the United States, signed September 17, 1787, was deemed
ratified June 21, 1788 by only nine states instead of the unanimous
ratification of all 13 states required by the Articles of Confederation.
Thereafter, a new,
centralized US Government was
formed, disregarding the original,
American jurisdiction of state legislatures established soon after the
In June of 1788 at the Virginia Conference, orator
and Anti-Federalist, Patrick Henry, exposed
the political tactics of
propaganda he believed the Federalists had used to win over the public.
The Framers had pandered to the people in order to get their way, he
said, by convincing the people, that under a new constitution, democracy would
mean the government belonged to them.
" Who authorized them to speak
the language, 'We, the people', instead of 'We, the states?' . . . That they
exceed their powers is perfectly clear . . . The Federal Convention ought to
have amended the old system; for this purpose they were solely delegated; the
object of their mission extended to no other consideration." - Patrick Henry,
June 4, 1788
The Constitution of 1787 and the US government it formed
was an illegitimate (unauthorized) takeover of the original American
The new Constitution provided for a much stronger
national government with a chief executive (the president), courts, and taxing
The Articles of Confederation have never been been lawfully
Americans, no longer suffering as indentured-servant subjects
of the British monarchy, now suffer as indentured-servant subjects of a the
United States Incorporated beholden to an obscured corporate-banking cartel.
The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union still stand.
The Constitution was a Federalist counterrevolution turning States into
Republicans are losing their enthusiasm for protecting black rights.
Despite the presence of federal troops, sent by President Grant to
protect black voting rights, white Democrats effectively resume campaigns of
violence and intimidation to suppress the Republican vote, with clearly
observable effects depicted in this map.
The formal end to
Reconstruction was brought about in the disputed 1876 Presidential election.
The Democratic candidate, Tilden, won the popular vote, but neither
candidate initially had a majority of electoral votes due to disputes over
returns in Florida, Louisiana and S. Carolina - the only states in which
federal troops were still stationed.
Although they were not numerous
enough to stop white intimidation of black voters, the troops were considered
an affront by white Democrats.
In backroom negotiations, Democrats
conceded the disputed election returns to Hayes in return for his agreement to
withdraw the remaining 3000 federal troops, thereby putting a formal end to
Reconstruction and assuring Democratic control, based on a platform of white
supremacy and black disenfranchisement, throughout the South.
This web site is not a commercial web site and
is presented for educational
This website defines a
new perspective with which to engage reality to which its author adheres. The
author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has
forged a populace unable to discern
propaganda from reality and that this has been done purposefully by an
international corporate cartel through their agents who wish to foist a corrupt
version of reality on the human race.
occurs when any group refuses to tolerate religious practices, religious
beliefs or persons due to their religious ideology. This web site marks the
founding of a system of philosophy named The Truth of the Way of the
Lumière Infinie - a rational gnostic mystery religion based on reason
which requires no leap of faith, accepts no tithes, has no supreme leader, no
church buildings and in which each and every individual is encouraged to
develop a personal relation with the Creator and Sustainer through the pursuit
of the knowledge of reality in the hope of curing the spiritual corruption that
has enveloped the human spirit. The tenets of The Truth of the Way of the
Lumière Infinie are spelled out in detail on this web site by the
author. Violent acts against individuals due to their religious beliefs in
America is considered a "hate crime."
This web site in no way condones
violence. To the contrary the intent here is to reduce the violence that is
already occurring due to the international corporate cartels
desire to control the human
race. The international corporate
cartel already controls the world economic system, corporate media
worldwide, the global industrial military entertainment complex and is
responsible for the collapse of morals, the elevation of
self-centered behavior and the destruction
of global ecosystems. Civilization is based on coöperation.
Coöperation does not occur at the
point of a gun.
American social mores and values have declined
precipitously over the last century as the corrupt international cartel has
garnered more and more power. This power rests in the ability to deceive the
populace in general through corporate media by pressing emotional buttons which
have been preprogrammed into the population through prior mass media
psychological operations. The results have been the destruction of the family
and the destruction of social structures that do not adhere to the corrupt
international elites vision of a perfect world. Through
distraction and coercion the direction of thought of the bulk of the population
has been directed toward solutions proposed by the corrupt international elite
that further consolidates their power and which further their purposes.
All views and opinions presented on this web site are the views and
opinions of individual human men and women that, through their writings, showed
the capacity for intelligent, reasonable, rational, insightful and unpopular
thought. All factual information presented on this web site is believed to be
true and accurate and is presented as originally presented in print media which
may or may not have originally presented the facts truthfully.
Opinion and thoughts
have been adapted, edited, corrected, redacted, combined, added to, re-edited
and re-corrected as nearly all opinion and thought has been throughout time but
has been done so in the spirit of the original writer with the intent of making
his or her thoughts and opinions clearer and relevant to the reader in the
Fair Use Notice
This site may contain
copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically
authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our
efforts to advance understanding of criminal justice, human rights, political,
economic, democratic, scientific, and
social justice issues, etc.
We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as
provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title
17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit
to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included
information for research and educational purposes. For more information see:
www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml. If you wish to use copyrighted
material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you
must obtain permission from the copyright owner.
© Lawrence Turner
All Rights Reserved