The bulk of a typical gasoline consists of hydrocarbons with between 4 and 12 carbon atoms per molecule (commonly referred to as C4-C12).

It is a mixture of paraffins (alkanes), cycloalkanes (naphthenes), and olefins (alkenes).

The usage of the terms paraffin and olefin is particular to the oil industry.

The actual ratio depends on:

the oil refinery that makes the gasoline, as not all refineries have the same set of processing units;

the crude oil feed used by the refinery;

the grade of gasoline, in particular, the octane rating.

Refinery streams are blended to make gasoline with different characteristics:

Straight-run gasoline, commonly referred to as naphtha, is distilled directly from crude oil.

Once the leading source of fuel, its low octane rating required lead additives.

It is low in aromatics (depending on the grade of crude oil), containing some cycloalkanes (naphthenes) and no olefins (alkenes).

Straight-run gasoline can be used as a feedstock into steam-crackers to produce olefins.

Reformate, produced in a catalytic reformer has a high octane rating with high aromatic content, and relatively low olefins (alkenes).

Most of the benzene, toluene, and xylene are more valuable as chemical feedstocks and are removed.

Catalytic cracked gasoline or catalytic cracked naphtha, produced from a catalytic cracker, with a moderate octane rating, high olefins (alkene) content, and moderate aromatics level.

Hydrocrackate (heavy, mid, and light) produced from a hydrocracker, with medium to low octane rating and moderate aromatic levels.

Alkylate is produced in an alkylation unit, using as feedstocks isobutane and alkenes. Alkylate contains no aromatics.

Isomerate is obtained by isomerizing low octane straight run gasoline to iso-paraffins (non-chain alkanes, like isooctane). Isomerate has no aromatics and olefins.

Butane is usually blended in the gasoline pool, although the quantity of this stream is limited.

The terms above are the jargon used in the oil industry and terminology varies.

In the EU the benzene limit is set at 1% volume for all grade of automotive gasoline.

Tetraethyl lead and other lead compounds are no longer used in most areas to regulate and increase octane-rating, but many other additives, including MTBE, are put into gasoline to improve its chemical stability, control corrosiveness, provide fuel system cleaning, and determine performance characteristics under intended use.

MTBE, methyl tert-butyl ether, is a gasoline additive, used as an oxygenate to raise the octane number.

The use of MTBE became controversial due to contamination of groundwater and legislation favoring ethanol.

What is in my water ?

Did the elimination of lead from petrol reduce crime in the USA?

fighting for freedom

Gold Oil Dollars Russia China

Twilight in the Desert: Coming Oil Shock

everything is not awesome

300 Years of FOSSIL FUELS in 300 Seconds

Big Oil: Masters of Deception and Inhumanity

A Brief Mythology of Petroleum

The United States of Petroleum

"We have economic problems, it's been caused by disruptions in our oil supply . With a force in Iraq, there will be no disruption in oil supplies ." - Robert Kagan*

Robert Kagan: Neocon, PNAC co-founder endorses Clinton

Secret memos expose link between oil firms and invasion of Iraq

emerald city lies just beyond

The Road to World War 3

To Kill the Black Snake

America's Dangerous Pipelines

California Pipeline Incidents: 1986-2014

23,200 man hours of work per barrel of oil

First US LNG Shipment To China Arrives

98 Million Pounds of Toxic Chemicals over 4 years

"Our main reason for invading Iraq was to assure control of its oil reserves. When our initial excuse of weapons of mass destruction was proved false, we fell back on the rationale of promoting democracy in the Middle East." - Maneck Bhujwala

1861 First oil wells were drilled in Oil City, Pennsylvania.

Oil City becomes central to the petroleum industry while hosting headquarters for the Pennzoil, Quaker State, and Wolf's Head motor oil companies.

1885 Sviet, Swedish built oil tanker for Russian Steam and Trading Co., arrives in London fully loaded with paraffin.

Standard Oil, controlled more than 90 percent of American exports, could afford price reductions and does so.

This monopolizing trick would be repeated in the future.

Standard Oil dominates the world oil market, with the exception of Russia.

The War over the Oil Market

1905 Richfield Oil Corporation founded.

1932 Cities Service Company acquires a majority of the stock of Richfield Oil Corporation.

Harry Sinclair president of Consolidated Oil continues to pursue Richfield Oil and prevents Standard Oil of California (Chevron) from taking over.

Richfield Oil sponsored Disneyland's model freeway Autopia from 1955-70.

1936 Rio Grande, controlled by Consolidated Oil, and Cities Service Company agree to a merger retaining the name Richfield Oil.

Every severe global recession of after World War II has been preceded by a jump in the price of oil.

1960 Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC, OH-pek) founded in Baghdad by Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela.

1966 Richfield Oil merges with Atlantic Refining to form Atlantic Richfield Corp, also known as ARCO.

Transnational elite sees control of Iraq as the key to lowering American oil prices, bolstering the American economy and ending the 30-year stranglehold on the global oil market by OPEC.

In the 1970s and the 1980s, the transnational elite secured it's interest in oil without stationing a single combat soldier on the Arabian Peninsula but peace is just not as profitable as war!

In the 1970s and the 1980s America relied on numerous aircraft carriers off the coast of the Arabian Peninsula.

The transnational elite also built numerous military bases near but not on the Arabian Peninsula so that large numbers of military ground forces could be moved to the region quickly if a crisis emerged.

When American military bases were built in Saudi Arabia and not removed after the first Gulf War it gave Usamah bin Mohammad bin Laden something to bitch about.

2000 ARCO in turn was purchased by BP PLC.

A PLC is a limited liability company (LLC) that has offered shares of stock to the general public.

PLC is used in Great Britain and some Commonwealth nations and is the equivalent of the US "Inc."

Wall Street Banks Create the Oil Crash

World Wasted Trillions of Dollars on Fossil Fuels

"One of the realities global inhabitants face but don't seem to realize is oil depletion." - Dwayne Deets

NATO invasion of Iraq removes Baath party members.

Baath party members hold every operational and executive position as that is a requirement of the regime of Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti.

Each and every individual that knew how to operate industrial concerns.

The invasion was never about 'helping' the Iraqi people.

"Controlling Iraq is about oil as power, rather than oil as fuel.

Control over the Persian Gulf translates into control over oil poor countries.

It's having our hand on the spigot." - Michael Klare

"A marine said we lost the hearts and minds of the Iraqis by securing the oil fields but leaving the national artwork open to plunder." - Jonathan Talberg

Crude oil held in sea storage hits new record at 160 million bbls

March 24, 1989

Exxon Valdez runs aground in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

Exxon Valdez spills 11 million of 53 million US gallons of petroleum.

The petroleum, originally extracted at the Prudhoe Bay field, covered 1,300 miles (2,100 km) of coastline, and 11,000 square miles (28,000 km2) of ocean.

The credit default swap was invented for ExxonMobil for the Valdez oil spill.

In the case of Baker v. Exxon, an Anchorage jury awarded $287 million for actual damages and $5 billion for punitive damages.

To protect itself in case the judgment was affirmed, Exxon obtained a $4.8 billion credit line from JP Morgan.

This gave JP Morgan the opportunity to create the first modern credit default swap in 1994, so that JP Morgan would not have to hold so much money in reserve (8% of the loan under Basel I) against the risk of default.

Exxon appealed the ruling, and the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ordered the original judge, Russel Holland, to reduce the punitive damages.

On December 6, 2002, judge announces reduced damages to $4 billion, which he concluded was justified by the facts and not grossly excessive.

Exxon appealed again and the case returned to court to be considered in light of a recent Supreme Court ruling in a similar case, which caused Judge Holland to increase the punitive damages to $4.5 billion, plus interest.

After more appeals, and oral arguments heard by the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals on January 27, 2006, the damages award was cut to $2.5 billion on December 22, 2006.

Court cites recent Supreme Court ruling on limits to punitive damages.

In a decision issued June 25, 2008, Justice David Souter issued the judgment, vacating the $2.5 billion award and remanding the case back to a lower court, finding damages were excessive in respect to maritime common law.

Exxon's actions deemed "worse than negligent but less than malicious."

The judgment limits punitive damages to the compensatory damages, which for this case were calculated as $507.5 million.

JP Morgan invented credit default swaps: Exxon Valdez liability credit line

Outsmarted: High Finance vs. Human Nature

Disaster Destroyed The Economy 20 Years Later

Exxon Valdez Environmental Damages remain unpaid

The Great Invasion

Fossil Fuel Subsidies: Tax Breaks and Societal Costs

Fossil Fuel Subsidies Overview

June 1992 Assets and operations of Texaco in Ecuador turned over to Petroecuador after lease expires.

Hundreds of toxic waste pits, scattered near local communities, rivers, and streams, are simply abandoned.

Texaco dumped billions of gallons of toxic wastewater into the rainforest from 1964 to 1992 while operating hundreds of oil wells.

Instead of designing the drilling and pumping operations to re-inject toxic wastewater back into deep subsoil formations, standard industry practice at the time, Texaco chose to dump the dangerous brew - benzene, toluene, arsenic, lead, mercury, cadmium - directly into local streams and tributaries.

"This was not an accident; it was a crime against nature and the indigenous population." - Maria Garces, Union of People Affected by Texaco

1997 BP Amoco purchases a 10% stake in the Russian oil amalgamation Sidanko.

1998 With Dick Cheney is in charge Halliburton Energy Services contracts with Moscow based Tyumen Oil to deveolp four western Siberia fields, the first being Samotlorskoye field.

Tyumen had proven oil reserves of 4.3 billion barrels, possibly as many as 6.1 billion barrels, with crude oil production and refining capabilities of 420,000 barrels/day and 230,000 barrels/day, respectively.

2001 Richard Bruce Cheney puts together a Energy Task Force that develops a map of Iraq's oil fields, with the southwest divided into nine "Exploration Blocks".

2002 "The State Department' Oil and Energy Working Group, meeting between December 2002 and April 2003, said that Iraq "should be opened to international oil corporations as quickly as possible after the war."

Its preferred method of privatization was a form of oil contract called a production-sharing agreement.

Page 1, Chapter 1 of the Iraq Study Group report lays out Iraq's importance to its region, America and the world with this reminder:

"Iraq has the world's second-largest known oil reserves."

The group then proceeds to give very specific and radical recommendations as to what the US should do to secure those reserves.

If the proposals are followed, Iraq's national oil industry will be commercialized and opened to foreign firms." - Antonia Juhasz, 12/08/06

Halliburton and Sibneft, Russia's fifth largest crude oil producer, sign an agreement.

Sibneft will use Halliburton's new technologies to improve well construction and processing while Halliburton directs all project management.

2003 Invasion of Iraq begins on March 20, 2003.

"Leaks from the State Department "future of Iraq" office show Washington plans to privatize the Iraqi economy and particularly the state-owned national oil incorporation." - Jonathan Steele 03/31/03

Between 2003 and 2004, American oil imports from Iraq increased by more than 86%.

2004 American appointed interim Prime Minister Iyad Allawi submitted guidelines to Iraq' Supreme Council for Oil Policy suggesting that the "Iraqi government disengage from running the oil sector" and that it be opened to international foreign investment, according to International Oil Daily.

What if America's Leaders Actually Want Catastrophic Climate Change?

Saudi Arabia Stealing 65% of Yemen's Oil in Collaboration with Total

January 2006

International Monetary Fund records a world wide 23% rise in food prices.

In this New World Order of high energy prices basic food commodities such as wheat, corn, soybeans and sugarcane will also become major energy sources.

Grain can be converted into bread for food or ethanol for gas stations.

Vegetable oil can be used for cooking or it can go to be used as diesel fuel.

Faced with an insatiable demand for automotive fuel, industrial farmers will want to clear more and more of the remaining tropical forests to produce sugarcane, oil palms, and other high yielding fuel crops generating a massive new threat to genetic diversity by conversion to industrial monoculture.

To survive humanity must turn to local sustainable energy sources.

The resource exploitive fossil fuel based, automobile centered, shopping center oriented, throwaway global consumer cultural model will be replaced with a 'new' symbiotic biomimicking cultural model.

In the small isolated communities that survive the throwaway global consumer culture a comprehensive symbiotic biomimicking cultural model based on reuse/recycle "cradle-to-cradle" economy powered by renewable energy sources: wind, solar, tide, geothermal, hydropower, and hemp biofuels.

2007 Iraq's new oil law allows provinces freedom from the central government control in executing exploration and production contracts called "production share agreements".

Americans burn 20.7 million barrels of oil per day, the equivalent of the oil consumption of China, Japan, Germany, Russia, and India combined.

Ray Lee Hunt, CEO of Hunt Oil, signs an oil deal with the Kurdistan Regional Government of Iraq with the approval of the State Department according to documents obtained by Congressional Commitee on Oversight and Government Reform.

Ray Lee Hunt spent most of the Bush administration serving on the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (rebranded the President's Intelligence Advisory Board in early 2008).

2008 A meeting shrouded in secrecy between 34 international oil companies and Iraqi oil ministry representatives occurred at the Park Lane Sheraton in London to divvy up the following oil fields:

Kirkuk and Bai Hassan in the north, and Rumaila North and South, Zubair, West Qurna Stage 1 and the three Missan oil fields in the south.

Also on the table are the Akkas gas field in western Iraq and the Mansouria gas field to the country's east where. With a combined total of 40 billion barrels, at no point in history has so great a quantity of known oil been offered in a single bid round to international oil companies, in any country.

Peak Oil: Myth Or Coming Reality?

Matthew Simmons on the Price of Oil

rolling drunk on petroleum

"We are dependent on oil for our food, transportation, commerce, medicine, communication, sanitation and the job specialization that provides the vast majority of our livelihoods. Breaking our dependency will involve wholesale change in the way we live and who we are." - Sara Anne Edwards

Matthew Simmons, chairman and CEO of the leading oil industry investment bank Simmons & Co. International, financed the exploration and development of new oil reserves.

In Twilight in the Desert, Matthew Simmons states:

(1) Most of Saudi Arabia's oil output is generated by a few giant fields, of which Ghawar - the Earth's largest - is the most prolific.

(2) These giant oil fields were first developed 40 to 50 years ago, and have since given up much of their easily extracted oil.

(3) To maintain high levels of production in these major oil fields, the Saudis have come to rely increasingly on the use of water injection and other secondary recovery methods to compensate for the drop in natural field pressure.

(4) As time passes, the ratio of water to oil in these underground fields rises to the point where further oil extraction becomes difficult, if not impossible and there is very little reason to assume that future Saudi exploration will result in the discovery of new oil fields to replace those now in decline.

IEA's World Energy Outlook

A study of the depletion rates of the world's top 800 oil fields found that the world would need to add 64 million barrels per day (mbpd) of new capacity between 2007 and 2030 in order to meet an anticipated demand growing at 1.6% per year.

Depletion rates after the peak can vary widely, from about 2% per year for a well-managed onshore field, to 20% or more per year for deepwater fields like Mexico's Cantarell field, and other deepwater fields in the Gulf of Mexico.

Of the 42 largest oil producing countries in the world, representing roughly 98% of all oil production, 30 have either plateaued or passed their peaks.

The IEA concluded that the world will have a hard time reaching 100 mbpd within the next two decades.

Their projected supply curves are now sharply reduced, while their global demand projections continue to show about a 1.5% annual rate of growth.

The report concluded with this stark warning:

By 2015, we expect relentless depletion to overcome new supply.

solar panels are an eyesore

Chevron Spends $3 Million on Local California Election

'Get someone up here. We're all dying.'

refinery on fire !

The accuracy of government safety statistics is undermined by the fact that many workers are now hired by or through independent contractors.

Long considered one of the nation's most dangerous industries, oil refining suddenly became one of the safest when the US Bureau of Labor Statistics reported no refinery deaths in 2002 or 2003.

But at least nine people were asphyxiated, burned or fell to their deaths at refineries during those years, according to media accounts, industry statistics and fatal accident reports to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

"They'll show up in the statistics but not as refinery workers. The more dangerous an occupation, the less likely a corporation will hire those people directly - they want to boost safety rates and decrease liability." - Guy Toscano, retired economist Bureau of Labor Statistics

The way safety statistics are now kept, a work site will not generally get a black mark if contractors from other companies are killed or injured there - only if a permanent employee dies or gets hurt.

"If the site gets picked up, it's going to be almost a fluke." - former OSHA Administrator Patrick Tyson

Hazardous industries such as steel, are increasingly contracting out their more dangerous jobs to make the primary corporation look safer.

Terry Brimer fell when a corroded railing gave way at the Indiana refinery in 2004.

OSHA fined British Petroleum $1,625.

"I have a British Petroleum paper that says we will provide our employees with a safe work environment, but there wasn't one for my husband. I don't feel like a $1,625 fine is enough of a motivator for them." - Naomi Brimer

British Petroleum West Coast Products agreed to fines, health programs and improvements totaling a record $81 million for thousands of pollution violations over the past decade at its Carson, California oil refinery.

"Since British Petroleum failed to identify and inspect as many as half the components in its facility during the last decade, emissions might be as much as double previous totals." - AQMD chief counsel Peter Mieras

little mermaid with Corexit EC9500A and Corexit EC9527A poisoning

The Best of The Little Mermaid

Did Regulators Hide a Spill Larger Than Exxon Valdez?

March 23, 2005 15 workers die in British Petroleum refinery fire in Texas City, Texas.

The worker deaths at the British Petroleum refinery could have been prevented according to a report by the United Steelworkers.

"If BP had taken the union's advice to pipe the atmospheric vent - where the hydrocarbons were released - to the flare system there would have been no fire and if BP had not violated its own policy and issued themselves a variance in order to place the trailer in a dangerous unit there would have been no deaths." - United SteelWorkers Region 6 Director Gary Beevers

The US Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board, one of several agencies looking into the blast, stated internal British Petroleum documents show that budget cuts of 25% from 1998 through 2000 caused a progressive deterioration of safety at the refinery.

"British Petroleum has admitted they were responsible. The issue is what level of knowledge did they have in advance. Those issues are still out there." - Brent Coon, Eva Rowe's attorney

Eva Rowe's parents, 48-year-old James Rowe and his wife, Linda Rowe, 47, of Hornbeck, La., were two of the 15 killed.

British Petroleum agrees to pay $50 million in fines and plead guilty to a felony for it's role in the refinery fire.

October 2009 OSHA fines British Petroleum $87 million for failing to correct deficiencies that lead to the 2005 explosion and fire that killed 15 workers.

OSHA issued 271 notifications to BP for failing to correct hazards at the Texas City refinery over the four-year period since the explosion and fire.

OSHA is issuing fines of $56.7 million for "failure to correct."

In addition, OSHA also identified 439 "willful and egregious" violations of industry-accepted safety controls at the refinery.

Those violations will lead to $30.7 million in additional fines.

black lagoon oil spill

BP Could Have the Stopped The Disaster in the Gulf

BP & The Real State of the Gulf – Pollution

Gulf Oil Spill Impacts BP Employee Pension Plan

BP's cost cuts contributed to oil spill disaster, federal probe finds

Deep Water Horizon Has a Deep Impact on UK Pension Schemes

BP Oil Spill Costs US State Pensions $1.4 Billion

BP's Deepwater Horizon bill tops $65bn

April 20, 2010

EPA whistleblower Hugh Kaufman gave an interview to Democracy Now during the height of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill news coverage and explained his views on the use of Corexit, saying "EPA now is taking the position that they really don't know how dangerous it is, even though if you read the label, it tells you how dangerous it is.

And, for example, in the Exxon Valdez case, people who worked with dispersants, most of them are dead now.

The average death age is around fifty.

It's very dangerous, and it's an economic - it's an economic protector of BP, not an environmental protector of the public."

US District Judge Carl Barbier in December 2012 dismissed all claims against the manufacturer of Corexit, stating that such claims would become an "obstacle to federal law".

Barbier held that Nalco did not determine how and in what quantities Corexit was administered during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

Dead-Missing-Jailed BP Whistleblowers

1) Stock for BP reached a 52 week high on April 21, 2010.

2) Stock for Halliburton reached a 52 week high on April 23, 2010.

3) Goldman Sachs was "short selling" oil rigs the week before the accident.

Gregory Stone: February 17, 2011 - LSU scientist unknown illness

Anthony Nicholas Tremonte:  January 26, 2011 - Mississippi Department of Marine Resources officer, from Ocean Springs arrested on child porn charge

Dr. Thomas B. Manton: January 19, 2011 - former President and CEO of the International Oil Spill Control Corporation - imprisonment and subsequent murder while jailed

John P. Wheeler II: December 31, 2010 - a former Pentagon official and presidential aide and a defense consultant and expert on chemical and biological weapons - was beaten to death in an assault, body was discovered in a Wilmington landfill

James Patrick Black: November 23, 2010 - an incident commander for BP's Gulf of Mexico oil spill response team, died near Destin, Florida in a small plane crash'

Chitra Chaunhan: November 15, 2010 - worked in the USF Center for Biological Defense and Global Health Infectious Disease Research. Found dead in an apparent suicide by cyanide at a Temple Terrace hotel. She leaves behind a husband and a young child.

Dr. Jeffrey Gardner: November, 2010 - MIA Status, of Lakeland, FL - investigating unexplained bird deaths near Sarasota abruptly and immediately closed his practice, and apparently his investigation into the deaths of swans in Sarasota, suspected to have been impacted by the BP Oil Disaster. No one has heard or spoken with him since.

Roger Grooters: October 6, 2010 - hit by a truck as he passed through Panama City, Florida. Mr. Grooters had been knocked down and killed close to the end of a 3,200-mile trans-America charity ride to raise awareness about the Gulf Coast oil disaster. He began his cross-country bike ride in Oceanside, California, on September 10th.

Senator Ted Stevens: August 9, 2010 - longest-serving Republican senator in history was among nine people on board when the 1957 DeHavilland DHC-3 Otter, crashed into a brush-and rock-covered mountainside about 17 miles north of the southwest Alaska fishing village of Dillingham. Stevens was the recipient of a whistleblower' communication relative to the BP Oil Disaster blow-out preventer, and a conspiracy of secrecy to hide the facts from the public.

Matthew Simmons: August 13, 2010 - Simmons' body was found in his hot tub, investigators said. An autopsy by the state medical examiner's office concluded Monday that he died from accidental drowning with heart disease as a contributing factor. Simmons was the only industry insider willing to speak out against the "officials" during the BP Oil Disaster in the Gulf of Mexico

Joseph Morrissey: April 6, 2010 - cell biologist and college professor, a near-native Floridian who chose to return to South Florida after studying at elite universities - was fatally shot during what police say was a home invasion robbery.

solar energy

Energy Currency: Towards A Perfect Currency

Stanford study: Power California with Wind, Water and Sun

How to Make an Entire Region Run on Renewables

Device uses light to split water into clean hydrogen

Low-cost water splitter makes hydrogen for 200 hours

unique library index

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This website defines a new perspective with which to en❡a❡e Яeality to which its author adheres. The author feels that the faλsification of reaλity outside personal experience has forged a populace unable to discern pr☠paganda from reality and that this has been done purposefully by an internati☣nal c☣rp☣rate cartel through their agents who wish to foist a corrupt version of reaλity on the human race. Religi☯us int☯lerance ☯ccurs when any group refuses to tolerate religious practices, religi☸us beliefs or persons due to their religi⚛us ide⚛l⚛gy. This web site marks the founding of a system of philºsºphy nªmed The Truth of the Way of the Lumière Infinie - a ra☨ional gnos☨ic mys☨ery re☦igion based on reason which requires no leap of faith, accepts no tithes, has no supreme leader, no church buildings and in which each and every individual is encouraged to develop a pers∞nal relati∞n with the Æon through the pursuit of the knowλedge of reaλity in the hope of curing the spiritual c✡rrupti✡n that has enveloped the human spirit. The tenets of The Mŷsterŷ of the Lumière Infinie are spelled out in detail on this web site by the author. Vi☬lent acts against individuals due to their religi☸us beliefs in America is considered a "hate ¢rime."

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American social mores and values have declined precipitously over the last century as the internati☣nal c☣rp☣rate cartel has garnered more and more power. This power rests in the ability to deceive the p☠pulace in general through c✡rp✡rate media by press☟ng em☠ti☠nal butt☠ns which have been πreπrogrammed into the πoπulation through prior mass media psychological operations. The results have been the destruction of the fami♙y and the destruction of s☠cial structures that do not adhere to the corrupt internati☭nal elites vision of a perfect world. Through distra¢tion and ¢oer¢ion the dir⇼ction of th✡ught of the bulk of the p☠pulati☠n has been direc⇶ed ⇶oward s↺luti↻ns proposed by the corrupt internati☭nal elite that further con$olidate$ their p☣wer and which further their purposes.

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