The bulk of a
typical gasoline consists
of hydrocarbons with between 4 and 12 carbon atoms per molecule (commonly
referred to as C4-C12).
It is a mixture of
paraffins (alkanes), cycloalkanes (naphthenes), and olefins
The usage of the terms paraffin and olefin is particular to
the oil industry.
The actual ratio depends on:
the oil refinery
that makes the gasoline, as not all refineries have the same set of processing
the crude oil feed used by the refinery;
the grade of
gasoline, in particular, the
Refinery streams are blended to make gasoline with
Straight-run gasoline, commonly referred to as naphtha, is distilled
directly from crude oil.
Once the leading source of fuel, its low
octane rating required lead additives.
It is low in aromatics
(depending on the grade of crude oil), containing some cycloalkanes
(naphthenes) and no olefins (alkenes).
Straight-run gasoline can be
used as a feedstock into steam-crackers to produce
Reformate, produced in a catalytic reformer has a high octane
rating with high aromatic content, and relatively low olefins (alkenes).
Most of the benzene, toluene, and xylene are
more valuable as chemical feedstocks and are removed.
gasoline or catalytic cracked naphtha, produced from a catalytic cracker, with
a moderate octane rating, high olefins (alkene) content, and moderate aromatics
Hydrocrackate (heavy, mid, and light) produced from a
hydrocracker, with medium to low octane rating and moderate aromatic levels.
Alkylate is produced in an alkylation unit, using as feedstocks
isobutane and alkenes. Alkylate contains no aromatics.
obtained by isomerizing low octane straight run gasoline to iso-paraffins
(non-chain alkanes, like isooctane). Isomerate has no aromatics and olefins.
Butane is usually blended in the gasoline pool, although the quantity
of this stream is limited.
The terms above are the jargon used in the
oil industry and terminology varies.
In the EU the benzene limit is set
at 1% volume for all grade of automotive gasoline.
Tetraethyl lead and other lead
compounds are no longer used in most areas to regulate and increase
octane-rating, but many other additives, including MTBE, are put into gasoline
to improve its chemical stability, control corrosiveness, provide fuel system
cleaning, and determine performance characteristics under intended
MTBE, methyl tert-butyl ether, is a gasoline additive, used as an
oxygenate to raise the octane number.
The use of
MTBE became controversial due
to contamination of groundwater and
What is in my water ?
elimination of lead from petrol reduce crime in the USA?
"Our main reason for invading Iraq was to assure
control of its oil reserves. When our
initial excuse of weapons of mass
destruction was proved false, we fell back on the rationale of promoting
democracy in the Middle
East." - Maneck Bhujwala1861
First oil wells were drilled in
Oil City becomes central to the petroleum industry
while hosting headquarters for the Pennzoil, Quaker State, and
Wolf's Head motor oil companies.
Sviet, Swedish built oil tanker for Russian Steam and Trading Co.,
arrives in London fully loaded with paraffin.
Standard Oil, controlled
more than 90 percent of American exports, could afford price reductions and
This monopolizing trick would be repeated in the future.
Standard Oil dominates the world oil market, with the exception of
The War over the Oil Market
1905 Richfield Oil Corporation founded.
Service Company acquires a majority of the stock of Richfield Oil
Sinclair president of Consolidated Oil continues to pursue Richfield
Oil and prevents Standard Oil of California (Chevron) from taking over.
Richfield Oil sponsored Disneyland's model freeway Autopia from
1936 Rio Grande, controlled by
Consolidated Oil, and Cities Service Company agree to a merger
retaining the name Richfield Oil.
Every severe global recession
of after World War II has been preceded by a jump in the price of oil.
1960 Organization of the
Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC, OH-pek) founded in Baghdad by Iran,
Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela.
Richfield Oil merges with Atlantic Refining to form Atlantic
Richfield Corp, also known as ARCO.
Transnational elite sees control of Iraq as
the key to lowering American oil prices, bolstering the American economy and
ending the 30-year stranglehold on the global oil market by
In the 1970s and
the 1980s, the transnational elite secured it's interest in oil without
stationing a single combat soldier on
the Arabian Peninsula but peace is just not as
profitable as war!
In the 1970s and the 1980s America relied on
carriers off the coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
transnational elite also built
numerous military bases near but not on
the Arabian Peninsula so that large numbers of
military ground forces
could be moved to the region quickly if
a crisis emerged.
American military bases were
built in Saudi Arabia and
not removed after the first Gulf
War it gave Usamah bin Mohammad bin
Laden something to bitch about.
2000 ARCO in turn was purchased by BP PLC.
A PLC is
a limited liability company (LLC) that has offered
shares of stock to the general
PLC is used in Great Britain and some Commonwealth nations
and is the equivalent of the US "Inc."
"One of the realities global inhabitants face but
don't seem to realize is oil depletion." - Dwayne
NATO invasion of Iraq removes Baath party
Baath party members
hold every operational and executive position as that is a requirement of
the regime of Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid
Each and every individual that knew how to operate
was never about 'helping' the Iraqi people.
"Controlling Iraq is about oil as power,
rather than oil as fuel.
Control over the Persian Gulf translates into
control over oil poor countries.
It's having our hand on the spigot." -
"A marine said we lost
the hearts and minds of the Iraqis by securing the oil fields but leaving
the national artwork open to plunder." - Jonathan Talberg
runs aground in Prince William Sound, Alaska.
Exxon Valdez spills
11 million of 53 million US gallons of petroleum.
originally extracted at the Prudhoe Bay field, covered 1,300 miles (2,100 km)
of coastline, and 11,000 square miles (28,000 km2) of ocean.
credit default swap
was invented for ExxonMobil for the Valdez
In the case of Baker v. Exxon, an Anchorage jury
awarded $287 million for actual damages and $5 billion for punitive damages.
To protect itself in case the judgment was affirmed, Exxon obtained a
$4.8 billion credit line from JP Morgan.
This gave JP Morgan the
opportunity to create the first modern credit default swap in 1994, so that JP
Morgan would not have to hold so much money in reserve (8% of the loan under
Basel I) against the risk of default.
Exxon appealed the ruling, and the
9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ordered the original judge, Russel Holland,
to reduce the punitive damages.
On December 6, 2002, judge announces
reduced damages to $4 billion, which he concluded was justified by the facts
and not grossly excessive.
Exxon appealed again and the case returned
to court to be considered in light of a recent Supreme Court ruling in a
similar case, which caused Judge Holland to increase the punitive damages to
$4.5 billion, plus interest.
After more appeals, and oral arguments
heard by the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals on January 27, 2006, the damages
award was cut to $2.5 billion on December 22, 2006.
Court cites recent
Supreme Court ruling on limits to punitive damages.
In a decision
issued June 25, 2008, Justice David Souter issued the judgment, vacating the
$2.5 billion award and remanding the case back to a lower court, finding
damages were excessive in respect to maritime common law.
actions deemed "worse than negligent but less than malicious."
judgment limits punitive damages to the compensatory damages, which for this
case were calculated as $507.5 million.
JP Morgan invented credit default swaps: Exxon Valdez liability
Outsmarted: High Finance vs. Human Nature
Destroyed The Economy 20 Years Later
Exxon Valdez Environmental Damages remain
June 1992 Assets and operations of
Texaco in Ecuador turned over
to Petroecuador after lease expires.
Hundreds of toxic waste pits,
scattered near local communities, rivers, and streams, are
billions of gallons of toxic
wastewater into the rainforest from 1964 to 1992 while operating hundreds
of oil wells.
Instead of designing the drilling and pumping operations
to re-inject toxic wastewater back into deep subsoil formations, standard
industry practice at the time, Texaco chose to dump the dangerous brew -
cadmium - directly
into local streams and tributaries.
"This was not an accident; it was a
crime against nature and the indigenous population." - Maria Garces, Union
of People Affected by Texaco
1997 BP Amoco
purchases a 10% stake in the Russian oil amalgamation
1998 With Dick Cheney is in charge Halliburton Energy
Services contracts with Moscow based Tyumen Oil to deveolp four western Siberia
fields, the first being
Tyumen had proven oil reserves
of 4.3 billion barrels, possibly as many as 6.1 billion barrels, with crude oil
production and refining capabilities of 420,000 barrels/day and 230,000
2001 Richard Bruce
Cheney puts together a Energy
Task Force that develops
a map of Iraq's oil
fields, with the southwest divided into nine "Exploration
2002 "The State Department' Oil
and Energy Working Group, meeting between December 2002 and April 2003,
said that Iraq "should be opened to international oil corporations as quickly
as possible after the war."
method of privatization
was a form of oil contract called a
Page 1, Chapter 1 of the Iraq Study Group report
lays out Iraq's importance to its region, America and the world with this
"Iraq has the world's second-largest known
then proceeds to give very specific and radical recommendations as to what the
US should do to secure those reserves.
If the proposals are followed,
Iraq's national oil industry will be commercialized and opened to foreign
firms." - Antonia Juhasz, 12/08/06
Halliburton and Sibneft, Russia's
fifth largest crude oil producer, sign an agreement.
Sibneft will use
Halliburton's new technologies to improve well construction and processing
while Halliburton directs
all project management.
Invasion of Iraq
begins on March 20, 2003.
"Leaks from the
State Department "future of
Iraq" office show Washington plans to privatize the Iraqi
economy and particularly the state-owned national oil incorporation." -
Jonathan Steele 03/31/03
Between 2003 and 2004, American oil imports
from Iraq increased by more than 86%.
American appointed interim Prime Minister Iyad Allawi submitted guidelines to
Iraq' Supreme Council for Oil Policy suggesting that the "Iraqi
government disengage from running the oil sector" and that it be opened to
international foreign investment, according to International Oil
Monetary Fund records a world wide 23% rise in
this New World Order of high energy prices
basic food commodities such as
soybeans and sugarcane
will also become major energy sources.
Grain can be converted into bread
for food or ethanol for gas stations.
Vegetable oil can be used for cooking or it can go to be used as diesel
Faced with an insatiable demand for automotive fuel,
industrial farmers will want
to clear more and more of
the remaining tropical forests to produce sugarcane, oil palms, and other
high yielding fuel crops generating a massive new threat to
genetic diversity by
conversion to industrial
To survive humanity must turn to local sustainable
The resource exploitive fossil
fuel based, automobile
center oriented, throwaway global consumer cultural model will be replaced
with a 'new'
symbiotic biomimicking cultural model.
In the small isolated
communities that survive the throwaway global consumer culture
symbiotic biomimicking cultural model based on reuse/recycle
"cradle-to-cradle" economy powered by
renewable energy sources:
wind, solar, tide, geothermal,
hydropower, and hemp biofuels.
2007 Iraq's new
oil law allows provinces freedom from the
central government control in
executing exploration and production contracts called "production share
Americans burn 20.7 million barrels of oil per day, the
equivalent of the oil consumption of China, Japan, Germany, Russia, and India
Ray Lee Hunt, CEO
of Hunt Oil, signs an oil deal with the Kurdistan Regional Government of Iraq
with the approval of the State Department according to documents obtained by
Congressional Commitee on Oversight and Government Reform.
Ray Lee Hunt
spent most of the Bush administration serving on the President's Foreign
Intelligence Advisory Board (rebranded the President's Intelligence Advisory
Board in early 2008).
2008 A meeting shrouded in
secrecy between 34 international oil companies and Iraqi oil ministry
representatives occurred at the Park Lane Sheraton in London to divvy up the
following oil fields:
Kirkuk and Bai Hassan in the north, and Rumaila
North and South, Zubair, West Qurna Stage 1 and the three Missan oil fields in
Also on the table are the Akkas gas field in western Iraq
and the Mansouria gas field to the country's east where. With a combined total
of 40 billion barrels, at no point in history has so great a quantity of known
oil been offered in a single bid round to international oil companies, in any
"We are dependent on oil for our
commerce, medicine, communication, sanitation and the job specialization that
provides the vast majority of our livelihoods.
dependency will involve wholesale change in the way we live and who we
are." - Sara Anne Edwards Matthew
Simmons, chairman and CEO of the leading oil industry
investment bank Simmons &
Co. International, financed the exploration and
development of new oil reserves.
In Twilight in the Desert,
Matthew Simmons states:
(1) Most of Saudi Arabia's oil output is
generated by a few giant fields, of which Ghawar - the Earth's largest - is the
(2) These giant oil fields were first developed 40 to 50
years ago, and have since given up much of their easily extracted oil.
(3) To maintain high levels of production
in these major oil fields, the Saudis have come to rely increasingly on the use
of water injection and other secondary recovery methods to compensate for the
drop in natural field pressure.
(4) As time passes, the ratio of water
to oil in these underground fields rises to the point where further oil
extraction becomes difficult,
if not impossible and there is very little reason to assume that future
Saudi exploration will result in the discovery of new oil fields to
replace those now in decline.
IEA's World Energy Outlook
A study of the depletion rates of the world's top 800 oil fields found
that the world would need to add 64 million barrels per day (mbpd) of new
capacity between 2007 and 2030 in order to meet
an anticipated demand
growing at 1.6% per year.
Depletion rates after the peak can vary
widely, from about 2% per year for a well-managed onshore field, to 20% or more
per year for deepwater fields like Mexico's Cantarell field, and other
deepwater fields in the Gulf of
Of the 42 largest oil producing countries in the world,
representing roughly 98% of all oil production, 30 have either plateaued or
passed their peaks.
The IEA concluded that the world will have a hard
time reaching 100 mbpd within the next two decades.
supply curves are now sharply reduced, while their global demand projections
continue to show about a 1.5% annual rate of growth.
concluded with this stark warning:
By 2015, we expect relentless
depletion to overcome new supply.
refinery on fire
!The accuracy of government
safety statistics is undermined by the fact that many workers are now hired
by or through independent
Long considered one of the nation's most dangerous
industries, oil refining suddenly became one of the safest when the US
Bureau of Labor Statistics reported no refinery deaths in 2002 or 2003.
But at least nine people were
asphyxiated, burned or fell to
their deaths at refineries during those years, according to media accounts,
industry statistics and fatal accident reports to
the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
up in the statistics but not as refinery workers. The more dangerous an
occupation, the less likely a corporation will hire those people directly -
they want to boost safety
rates and decrease liability." - Guy Toscano, retired economist Bureau
of Labor Statistics
The way safety statistics
are now kept, a work site will not generally get a black mark if
contractors from other companies are killed or injured there -
only if a permanent
employee dies or gets hurt.
"If the site gets picked up, it's going
to be almost a fluke." - former OSHA Administrator Patrick Tyson
Hazardous industries such as steel, are increasingly contracting out
their more dangerous jobs to make the primary corporation look safer.
Terry Brimer fell when a corroded railing gave way at the Indiana
refinery in 2004.
OSHA fined British Petroleum $1,625.
a British Petroleum paper that says we will provide our employees with a safe
work environment, but there wasn't one for my husband. I don't feel like a
$1,625 fine is enough of a motivator for them." - Naomi Brimer
Petroleum West Coast Products agreed to fines, health programs and improvements
totaling a record $81 million for thousands of pollution violations over the
past decade at its Carson, California oil refinery.
Petroleum failed to identify and inspect as many as half the components in its
facility during the last decade, emissions might be as much as double previous
totals." - AQMD chief counsel Peter Mieras
2005 15 workers die in British Petroleum refinery fire in Texas City,
The worker deaths at the British Petroleum refinery could have
been prevented according to a report by the United Steelworkers.
had taken the union's advice to pipe the atmospheric vent - where the
hydrocarbons were released - to the flare system there would have been no fire
and if BP had not violated its own policy and issued themselves a variance in
order to place the trailer in a dangerous unit there would have been no
deaths." - United SteelWorkers Region 6 Director Gary Beevers
Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board, one of several agencies looking
into the blast, stated internal British Petroleum documents show that budget
cuts of 25% from 1998 through 2000 caused a progressive deterioration of safety
at the refinery.
"British Petroleum has admitted they were responsible.
The issue is what level of knowledge did they have in advance. Those issues are
still out there." - Brent Coon, Eva Rowe's attorney
Eva Rowe's parents,
48-year-old James Rowe and his wife, Linda Rowe, 47, of Hornbeck, La., were two
of the 15 killed.
British Petroleum agrees to pay $50 million in fines
and plead guilty to a felony for it's role in the refinery fire.
October 2009 OSHA fines British Petroleum $87 million for
failing to correct deficiencies that lead to the 2005 explosion and fire that
killed 15 workers.
OSHA issued 271 notifications to BP for failing to
correct hazards at the Texas City refinery over the four-year period since the
explosion and fire.
OSHA is issuing fines of $56.7 million for "failure
In addition, OSHA also identified 439 "willful and
egregious" violations of industry-accepted safety controls at the refinery.
Those violations will lead to $30.7 million in additional
EPA whistleblower Hugh
Kaufman gave an interview to Democracy Now during the height of the
Deepwater Horizon oil spill news coverage and explained his views on the use of
Corexit, saying "EPA now is taking the position that they really don't know how
dangerous it is, even though if you read the
label, it tells you how dangerous it
And, for example, in the Exxon Valdez case, people who worked with
dispersants, most of them are dead now.
The average death age is around
It's very dangerous, and it's an economic - it's an economic
protector of BP, not an environmental protector of the public."
District Judge Carl Barbier in December 2012 dismissed all claims against the
manufacturer of Corexit,
stating that such claims would become an "obstacle to federal law".
Barbier held that Nalco did not determine how and in what quantities
Corexit was administered during the Deepwater Horizon oil
Dead-Missing-Jailed BP Whistleblowers
1) Stock for BP reached a 52 week high on April
2) Stock for Halliburton reached a 52 week high on April 23,
3) Goldman Sachs was "short selling" oil rigs the week
before the accident.
February 17, 2011 - LSU scientist unknown illness
Tremonte: January 26, 2011 - Mississippi Department of Marine Resources
officer, from Ocean Springs arrested on child porn charge
Dr. Thomas B.
Manton: January 19, 2011 - former President and CEO of the International Oil
Spill Control Corporation - imprisonment and subsequent murder while
John P. Wheeler II: December 31, 2010 - a former Pentagon
official and presidential aide and a defense consultant and expert on chemical
and biological weapons - was beaten to death in an assault, body was discovered
in a Wilmington landfill
James Patrick Black: November 23, 2010 - an
incident commander for BP's Gulf of Mexico
oil spill response team, died
near Destin, Florida in a small plane crash'
Chitra Chaunhan: November
15, 2010 - worked in the USF Center for Biological Defense and Global Health
Infectious Disease Research. Found dead in
an apparent suicide by
cyanide at a Temple Terrace hotel. She leaves behind a husband and a young
Dr. Jeffrey Gardner: November, 2010 - MIA Status, of Lakeland, FL
- investigating unexplained bird deaths near Sarasota abruptly and immediately
closed his practice, and apparently his investigation into the deaths of swans
in Sarasota, suspected to have been impacted by the BP Oil Disaster. No one has
heard or spoken with him since.
Roger Grooters: October 6, 2010 - hit
by a truck as he passed through Panama City, Florida. Mr. Grooters had been
knocked down and killed close to the end of a 3,200-mile trans-America
charity ride to raise
awareness about the Gulf Coast oil disaster. He began his cross-country bike
ride in Oceanside, California, on September 10th.
Senator Ted Stevens:
August 9, 2010 - longest-serving Republican senator in history was among nine
people on board when the 1957 DeHavilland DHC-3 Otter, crashed into a brush-and
rock-covered mountainside about 17 miles north of the southwest Alaska
fishing village of
Dillingham. Stevens was the recipient of a
communication relative to the BP Oil Disaster blow-out preventer, and a
conspiracy of secrecy to hide
the facts from the public.
Simmons: August 13, 2010 - Simmons' body was found in his hot tub,
investigators said. An autopsy by the state medical examiner's office concluded
Monday that he died from accidental drowning with heart disease as a
contributing factor. Simmons was the only industry insider willing to speak out
against the "officials" during the BP Oil Disaster in the Gulf of Mexico
Joseph Morrissey: April 6, 2010 - cell biologist and college professor,
a near-native Floridian who chose to return to South Florida after studying at
elite universities - was fatally shot during what police say was
a home invasion
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