"Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical
Education set a maximum workweek of 80 hours for residents, with a maximum
shift of 30 hours."
Richard A. Friedman
"There is wide use of drugs to
medicate boys, especially, against their natural tendency toward action,
the better to "keep things on track."1887
Amphetamine (alpha-methylphenethylamine) is
synthesized in Germany by Romanian chemist Lazar Edeleanu who names it
I taught briefly in
a public high school and would
have loved to have set up a
Ritalin® fogger in my classroom.
It is a rare person, male or
female, who is naturally inclined
to sit still for 17 years in school, and then indefinitely at work." -
Matthew B. Crawford
1893 Methamphetamine is
synthesized by chemist Nagayoshi Nagai.
The molecular structure of this
pioneering material is similar to adrenalin, and so it passes easily through
the blood and into the brain.
Unlike adrenalin, however,
methamphetamine does not cause sudden rises in blood pressure but works more
gently and lasts longer.
The effect occurs as the drug slowly tickles
out dopamine and noradrenaline from the nerve cells of the brain and pours them
into synaptic gaps.
This puts the brain cells in excited chain reactive
As the neuronal firework explode a biochemical machine
gun starts firing uninterrupted sequences of cyclic repetitious action
The consumer feels wide awake and experiences an increase in
One feels livelier, energized to the tips of one's hair and
Self-confidence rises, there is a subjectively perceived
acceleration of thought processes, a sense of euphoria, and a feeling of
lightness and freshness.
Neurologically a state of emergency is
experienced, a shock of terror, a time when an organism mobilizes all its
forces - even though there is no danger.
And this is the reason that
"speed does indeed kill."
1933 Smith, Kline and
French began selling Benzedrine®.
sulfate is introduced and used to treat a wide variety of medical conditions,
including narcolepsy, obesity, low blood pressure, low libido,
chronic pain and as an over-the-counter inhaler to treat
Benzedrine® became a controlled substance, it is replaced by
propylhexedrine, also known as hexahydromethamphetamine.
are "power drugs" that reduce fatigue, heighten aggression, and diminish human
warmth and empathy.
Amphetamines, used chronically, induce stereotyped
thought and behavior.
Long-term use of amphetamines often exacerbates
Extended binges on methamphetamine leads to
Hallucinations and paranoia lead to methamphetamine induced
Methamphetamine induced psychosis is caused by effects on at
least three areas of the brain: the visual
cortex, the auditory cortex, and the
part of this induced psychosis is
the by product of fatigue, a shutting down of the higher
processes and lack of dreaming to reset neurons.
Frontal lobes are
often damaged by addiction to methamphetamine.
1941 Massive amounts of methamphetamines are produced by both
the Allies and Axis powers.
John F. Kennedy and Adolf Hitler both
receive daily injections of methamphetamine.
Adolf Hitler's Wehrmacht
distributed methamphetamine tablets to German fighting troops throughout World
War II as did the US Army Air Forces.
The Japanese used methamphetamine
to help the teen age suicide
bombers (kamikaze) to complete their airplane flights to their intended
American warship targets.
After World War II there were huge stockpiles
of methamphetamines left in many countries, especially in Japan and throughout
In the late 1940s and early 1950s, a huge surge in
methamphetamine abuse was noted in Scandinavia and Japan following the dumping
of these methamphetamine stocks onto the civilian market.
"I have seen desperate
Heroin addicts, unable to find a workable vein to shoot their next
fix suffering from liver disease and God knows what else, recover physically
100% and go on to lead relatively decent lives. Stimulant abusers, too, can
make remarkable physical recoveries although, in truth, it's much more
difficult than recovering from Heroin." - John J.
1967 31 million prescriptions in America
Methamphetamine does not only pour neurotransmitters
into the gaps but also blocks their reabsorption.
For this reason the
effects are long-lasting, often more than twelve hours, a length of time that
damage the nerve cells at higher doses as the intercellular energy supply is
drawn into sympathy.
The neurons run hot and brain chatter can't be turned off.
Nerve cells give up and die off irrevocably.
This can lead to a
deterioration in the ability to find words, in attention and concentration, and
a general depletion in the brain where memory, emotions, and the reward system
The lack of stimulation once the effect fades away is a
sign of empty hormone stores, which have to fill back up again over the course
of several weeks.
In the meantime fewer neurotransmitters are
available: the consequences can include a lack of drive, depression,
joylessness, and cognitive disturbances.
263 meth labs are seized in America.
meth labs are seized by DEA.
4,600 meth labs are seized by
local police in America.
Work Hours, Health and Safety Group reports that one in five
resident-physicians admitted making a
related mistake that injured a patient.
One in 20 admitted a chronic
fatigue related mistake that resulted in a patient's death.
day and night, rather
than transferring patient care to a fresh doctor, increases serious medical
errors in ICUs by 36%, including a 460% increase in
Twenty-four hours without sleep slows reaction time
comparably to alcohol intoxication.
fall asleep during lectures, on patient rounds, while examining patients and
even during surgery.
After working more than 24 hours, resident
physicians are 73% more likely to stab themselves with a needle and 168% more
likely to crash driving home." - Charles A. Czeisler
through a 36-hour shift at Johns
Hopkins Hospital, I was
hungry and hadn't slept for 24 hours, but I was facing an overflowing
intensive care unit and somehow needed to discharge five patients to make room
Mr. "Smith", who had esophageal surgery, was a borderline
Because of the pressure I was under, I decided to remove his
That turned out to be a very bad decision.
After six hours he still wasn't waking up." - Peter Pronovost
2007 A raid in Mexico yields $205 million in
cash, mostly $100 dollar bills, weighing 4,500 lb earned selling
"No behavior or
misbehavior is a disease or can be a disease.
That's not what diseases
Diseases are malfunctions of the human body, of the heart, the
liver, the kidney, the brain.
Typhoid fever is a disease.
Spring fever is not a disease; it is a figure of speech, a metaphoric
All mental diseases are metaphoric diseases, misrepresented as
real diseases and mistaken for disease." - Thomas Szasz, Professor of
Vyvanse®, Strattera®, and Adderall®
"People with attention deficit disorder (as well as
those with dyslexia,
bipolar disorder or
usually have extraordinary talents that get
buried under troubles
Getting enough sleep, eating right and getting lots of physical
exercise help with attention deficit disorder (and everything else)." - Edward
"There are many children whose only problem in life
is not doing their homework but are medicated with ADHD drugs; and the majority
of their parents had no idea that they were giving their children amphetamines
or amphetamine-like substances." - Bruce Levine
2001 Marketing of
hyperactivity disorder drugs legalized.
PHRMA began aggressively
marketing attention-deficit hyperactivity drugs.
2001 to 2006 Use of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
drugs has increased 60%.
2006 25 people - including 19 children - die suddenly within
the last 4 years while using attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
drugs which include Ritalin®, Concerta®, Methylin® and
Metadate® - all stimulants; 43 people taking the drugs for
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder experienced serious cardiovascular
events, including strokes,
cardiac arrest and heart
palpitations; 26 serious cardiovascular problems were
reported in children, including two heart
attacks and two strokes.
3.3 million Americans 19 or younger and
nearly 1.5 million age 20 and older are taking
attention deficit disorder
Children in America are prescribed
hyperactivity disorder drugs at 10 times the rate that children are
prescribed attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder drugs in
Nearly 1 in 10 12-year-old American boys take a
2011 ADHD drugs and their
generic equivalents are responsible
for nearly 23,000 emergency room visits in America.
Over a six-year
span, there's been a 400% increase in
"Patients are no longer just taking medications in
childhood, but are encouraged to stay on them when they become adults.
Vyvanse®, an amphetamine, and Concerta® were introduced in 2008
for treating adults.
Students take drugs to increase academic
performance, and physicians and lawyers are taking stimulants in hopes
of boosting their productivity.
drugs have therefore become increasingly popular.
According to a 2007
study, prescriptions for ADHD drugs in the methalphenidate and amphetamine
categories rose by almost 12% per year between 2000 and 2005." - Paul
The excess and continual use of
methamphetamine while not necessarily causing excessive
loss causes the human brain to run in
a cyclic pattern of
thought, like a viynl record
stuck in a groove, that cycles back
upon itself repeatedly interjected with
Gabriel Garcia Marquez describes perfectly the psychosis
experienced by a methamphetamine user in his story about the
many hours of wakefulness the methamphetamine user is as close to
the zombies portrayed in horror movies as
all higher brain functions cease.
Frontal lobe functions no
methamphetamine use is a form of insanity.
"Two federal officials have concluded that
asthma sufferers risk death if
they continue to use four hugely popular
asthma drugs -
Advair®, Symbicort®, Serevent® and Foradil®." - Gardiner
Harris, 12/05/08 1982 FDA report
warns that phenylpropanolamine has "the ability to cause
cardiovascular effects, cerebral hemorrhage
and cardiac arrhythmias."
Two years later a memo from the medical
services department at Sandoz Pharmaceuticals, which made the
phenylpropanolamine products Triaminic® and Tavist-D®, referred to
phenylpropanolamine as "an agent known to cause
hypertension and stroke," yet the pharmaceutical industry accelerated their
marketing of phenylpropanolamine, winning FDA approval to sell prescription
phenylpropanolamine products on an over-the-counter basis while introducing
flavorful new formulas for young children.
any notion that phenylpropanolamine could be
dangerous and dismissed contrary
Tracy Patton, at 37, and Tricia
Newenham, at 15, had a catastrophic stroke.
Only hours before the
catastrophic strokes each victim had taken an over-the-counter medicine
containing phenylpropanolamine the active ingredient in scores of popular
nonprescription decongestants and diet aids.
1999 Landmark $5 million Yale University study sponsored by
the pharmaceutical industry
concludes the use of phenylpropanolamine is associated with an increased risk
of catastrophic stroke.
Tracy Patton and Tricia Newenham, who had taken
Triaminic® cold syrup, were among hundreds of phenylpropanolamine consumers
who had catastrophic strokes.
The pharmaceutical industry launches a
yearlong campaign to keep the results quiet and stall government
By the time the phenylpropanolamine is removed from
over-the-counter medicine, 13 months and hundreds of strokes later, the
companies have reformulated their
brand names with little
interruption in sales or cash flow.
PHRMA market for
phenylpropanolamine, estimated at $500 million to $1 billion anually, is saved
and in the interim, Americans continue to purchase phenylpropanolamine products
off the shelf assuming they are safe.
The pharmaceutical industry
hoped to make it through the 2000 cold season without pulling
November 2000 Two
weeks after an FDA advisory panel concluded that phenylpropanolamine could be
hazardous, an official with Bayer,
which made Alka-Seltzer Plus® with phenylpropanolamine, drafted a proposed
"phenylpropanolamine crisis action plan."
The crisis action plan's
stated objectives: "Delay mandatory implementation of FDA recommendation. Blunt
PR impact by highlighting as questionable study
conclusions as they pertain to cough/cold products."
MKUltra is still investigating new
hopes MDMA can be used as a chemical warfare agent designed to sow
anxiety and fear in the
Theodore John Kaczynski,
one of the test subjects undergoes "purposely brutalizing psychological
experiments" led by Harvard psychologist Henry Murray under the influence of
brutalizing psychological experiments severely alter the brain of Theodore
May 31, 1985 MDMA becomes illegal in
"A lot of the Ecstasy we see in Las Vegas comes from
Israeli dealers." - Sergeant Blake Quackenbush, Las Vegas Metropolitan Police
1994 to 2004 Israeli
chemical traffickers dominate the trans-Atlantic lines of shipment of
Oded Tuito* imported more than 7 million "Ecstacy" pills into
America before being arrested.
Oded Tuito died mysteriously while
incarcerated in a New York jail.
"Oded Tuito was known as the world's
largest trafficker of MDMA." - DEA administrator Karen Tandy before the US
House of Representatives Appropriations Committee
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