"Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical
Education set a maximum workweek of 80 hours for residents, with a maximum
shift of 30 hours."
Richard A. Friedman
wide use of drugs to medicate boys, especially, against their natural
tendency toward action, the better to "keep things on track."1887 Amphetamine
(alpha-methylphenethylamine) is synthesized
in Germany by Romanian chemist Lazar Edeleanu who names it
briefly in a public high school
and would have loved to have set up
a Ritalin® fogger in my
It is a rare person, male or female, who is
naturally inclined to sit
still for 17 years in school, and then indefinitely at work." - Matthew B.
1893 Methamphetamine is synthesized by chemist Nagayoshi
The molecular structure of this pioneering material is similar to
adrenalin, and so it passes easily through the blood and into the brain.
Unlike adrenalin, however, methamphetamine does not cause sudden rises
in blood pressure but works more gently and lasts longer.
occurs as the drug slowly tickles out
noradrenaline from the nerve
cells of the brain and pours them into synaptic gaps.
This puts the
brain cells in excited chain reactive communication.
As the neuronal
firework explode a biochemical machine gun starts firing
uninterrupted sequences of cyclic
repetitious action thoughts.
The consumer feels wide awake and
experiences an increase in energy.
One feels livelier, energized to the
tips of one's hair and fingers.
Self-confidence rises as there is
a subjectively perceived
acceleration of thought processes, a
sense of euphoria, and a feeling of lightness and freshness.
Neurologically a state of
emergency is experienced, a shock
of terror, a time when an organism mobilizes all its forces - even though
there is no danger.
And this is the reason that "speed does indeed
1933 Smith, Kline
and French began selling
sulfate is introduced and used to treat a wide variety of medical conditions,
including narcolepsy, obesity,
low blood pressure, low
libido, chronic pain and as an over-the-counter inhaler to treat
When Benzedrine® became a controlled substance, it is
replaced by propylhexedrine, also known as
Amphetamines are "power drugs" that reduce
fatigue, heighten aggression, and diminish human warmth and empathy.
Amphetamines, used chronically, induce stereotyped thought and
Long-term use of amphetamines often exacerbates depression.
Extended binges on methamphetamine leads to hallucinations and
Hallucinations and paranoia lead to methamphetamine induced
Methamphetamine induced psychosis is caused by effects on at
least three areas of the brain: the
cortex, the auditory cortex, and the
large part of this induced psychosis is
the by product of fatigue, a shutting down of the higher thought processes and
lack of dreaming to reset neurons.
Frontal lobes are
often damaged by addiction to methamphetamine.
1941 Massive amounts of methamphetamines are produced by both
the Allies and Axis powers.
John F. Kennedy and Adolf
Hitler both receive daily injections of methamphetamine.
Wehrmacht distributed methamphetamine tablets to German fighting troops
throughout World War II as did the US Army Air Forces.
The Japanese used
methamphetamine to help the teen age
suicide bombers (kamikaze) to
complete their airplane flights to their intended American warship targets.
After World War II there were huge stockpiles of methamphetamines left
in many countries, especially in Japan and throughout northern Europe.
In the late 1940s and early 1950s, a huge surge in methamphetamine
abuse was noted in Scandinavia and Japan following the dumping of these
methamphetamine stocks onto the civilian market.
"I have seen desperate
Heroin addicts, unable to find a workable vein to shoot their next
fix suffering from liver disease and God knows what else, recover physically
100% and go on to lead relatively decent lives. Stimulant abusers, too, can
make remarkable physical recoveries although, in truth, it's much more
difficult than recovering from Heroin." - John J.
pharmacological potential, including anxiolytic, antipsychotic, antiemetic and
Whereas it has been well established that
Δ9THC promotes sleep, contradictory results on the effect of
CBD on sleep were reported.
For instance, Monti (1977) found a
diminution in sleep after systemic administration of CBD, whereas Carlini and
Cunha (1981) showed an improvement in sleep in
insomniacs after using CBD.
Hypothalamus - Central administration of
CBD enhances c-Fos expression in the hypothalamus. Several reports suggest a
key role of hypothalamus in the modulation of alertness.
nuclei - Central administration of CBD enhances c-Fos expression in DRN. It is
known that electrophysiological activity of DRN is higher in the waking state
and decreases during sleep, being virtually absent in REM sleep.
microdialysis approach, DA contents collected from AcbC have been found
enhanced after central administration of CBD.
Lesions of DA neurons
reduce arousal in animal models, as well as in
patients that present sleep dysfunction
such as excessive daytime sleepiness.
If CBD induces alertness via
activation of neurons in the hypothalamus and promotes the enhancement in DA
levels, it would suggest that the enzymatic process involved in the formation
of catecholamines may be under the influence of CBD.
1967 31 million prescriptions in America for
Methamphetamine does not only pour
into the gaps but also blocks their reabsorption.
For this reason the
effects are long-lasting, often more than twelve hours, a length of time that
damage the nerve cells at higher doses as the intercellular energy supply is
drawn into sympathy.
The neurons run hot and brain chatter can't be turned off.
Nerve cells give up and die off irrevocably.
This can lead to a
deterioration in the ability to find words, in attention and concentration, and
a general depletion in the brain where memory, emotions, and the reward system
The lack of stimulation once the effect fades away is a
sign of empty hormone stores, which have to fill back up again over the course
of several weeks.
In the meantime fewer
are available: the consequences can include
a lack of drive,
joylessness, and cognitive
1994 263 meth labs are seized
2000 1,800 meth labs are seized by
4,600 meth labs
are seized by local police in
2006 Harvard Work Hours, Health
and Safety Group reports that one in five resident-physicians admitted
making a chronic
fatigue related mistake that injured a patient.
One in 20 admitted
a chronic fatigue related mistake that resulted in a patient's death.
"Working day and
night, rather than transferring patient care to a fresh doctor, increases
serious medical errors in ICUs by 36%, including a 460% increase in
Twenty-four hours without sleep slows reaction time
comparably to alcohol intoxication.
fall asleep during lectures, on patient rounds, while examining patients and
even during surgery.
working more than 24 hours, resident physicians are 73% more likely to stab
themselves with a needle and 168% more likely to crash driving home." - Charles
"Partway through a 36-hour shift at
Johns Hopkins Hospital,
I was hungry and hadn't slept
for 24 hours, but I was facing an overflowing intensive care unit and somehow
needed to discharge five patients to make room for more.
who had esophageal surgery, was a borderline call.
Because of the
pressure I was under, I decided to remove his breathing tube.
turned out to be a very bad decision.
After six hours he still wasn't
waking up." - Peter Pronovost
2007 A raid in
Mexico yields $205 million in cash, mostly $100 dollar bills, weighing 4,500 lb
earned selling methamphetamines.
"No behavior or
misbehavior is a disease or can be a disease.
That's not what diseases
Diseases are malfunctions of the human body, of the heart, the
liver, the kidney, the brain.
Typhoid fever is a disease.
Spring fever is not a disease; it is a figure of speech, a metaphoric
All mental diseases are metaphoric diseases, misrepresented as
real diseases and mistaken for disease." - Thomas Szasz, Professor of
Ritalin®, Vyvanse®, Strattera®, and
"People with attention deficit disorder (as well as
those with dyslexia,
bipolar disorder or
usually have extraordinary
talents that get buried
under troubles and disappointments.
Getting enough sleep, eating right and getting lots of physical
exercise help with attention deficit disorder (and everything else)." - Edward
"There are many children whose only problem in life
is not doing their homework but are medicated with ADHD drugs; and the majority
of their parents had no idea that they were giving their children amphetamines
or amphetamine-like substances." - Bruce Levine
2001 Marketing of
hyperactivity disorder drugs legalized.
PHRMA began aggressively
marketing attention-deficit hyperactivity drugs.
2001 to 2006 Use of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
drugs has increased 60%.
2006 25 people - including 19 children - die suddenly within
the last 4 years while using attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
drugs which include Ritalin®, Concerta®, Methylin® and
Metadate® - all stimulants; 43 people taking the drugs for
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder experienced
events, including strokes,
cardiac arrest and heart
palpitations; 26 serious cardiovascular problems were
reported in children, including two heart
attacks and two strokes.
3.3 million Americans 19 or younger and
nearly 1.5 million age 20 and older are taking
attention deficit disorder
Children in America are prescribed
hyperactivity disorder drugs at 10 times the rate that children are
prescribed attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder drugs in
Nearly 1 in 10 12-year-old American boys take a
2011 ADHD drugs and their
generic equivalents are responsible
for nearly 23,000 emergency room visits in America.
Over a six-year
span, there's been a 400% increase in
"Patients are no longer just taking medications in
childhood, but are encouraged to stay on them when they become adults.
Vyvanse®, an amphetamine, and Concerta® were introduced in 2008
for treating adults.
Students take drugs to increase academic
performance, and physicians and lawyers are taking stimulants in hopes
of boosting their productivity.
drugs have therefore become increasingly popular.
According to a 2007
study, prescriptions for ADHD drugs in the methalphenidate and amphetamine
categories rose by almost 12% per year between 2000 and 2005." - Paul
The excess and continual use of methamphetamine while not
necessarily causing excessive
memory loss causes
the human brain to run in
a cyclic pattern of
thought, like a viynl record stuck
in a groove, that cycles back upon
itself repeatedly interjected with
Gabriel Garcia Marquez describes perfectly the psychosis
experienced by a methamphetamine user in his story about the
After many hours of wakefulness the methamphetamine user is
as close to the zombies portrayed in
horror movies as all higher brain functions cease.
Frontal lobe functions no
Chronic methamphetamine use is a
form of insanity.
"Two federal officials have concluded that
asthma sufferers risk death if
they continue to use four hugely popular
asthma drugs -
Advair®, Symbicort®, Serevent® and Foradil®." - Gardiner
Harris, 12/05/08 1982 FDA report
warns that phenylpropanolamine has "the ability to cause
cardiovascular effects, cerebral hemorrhage
and cardiac arrhythmias."
Two years later a memo from the medical
services department at Sandoz Pharmaceuticals, which made the
phenylpropanolamine products Triaminic® and Tavist-D®, referred to
phenylpropanolamine as "an agent known to cause
hypertension and stroke," yet the pharmaceutical industry accelerated their
marketing of phenylpropanolamine, winning FDA approval to sell prescription
phenylpropanolamine products on an over-the-counter basis while introducing
flavorful new formulas for young children.
any notion that phenylpropanolamine could be
and dismissed contrary
Tracy Patton, at 37, and Tricia
Newenham, at 15, had a catastrophic stroke.
Only hours before the
catastrophic strokes each victim had taken an over-the-counter medicine
containing phenylpropanolamine the active ingredient in scores of popular
nonprescription decongestants and diet aids.
1999 Landmark $5 million Yale University study sponsored by the
pharmaceutical industry concludes the use of phenylpropanolamine is associated
with an increased risk of catastrophic stroke.
Tracy Patton and Tricia
Newenham, who had taken Triaminic® cold syrup, were among hundreds of
phenylpropanolamine consumers who had catastrophic strokes.
pharmaceutical industry launches a yearlong campaign to keep the results
quiet and stall government regulation.
By the time the phenylpropanolamine is removed from over-the-counter
medicine, 13 months and hundreds of strokes later, the companies have
reformulated their brand
names with little interruption in sales or cash flow.
PHRMA market for
phenylpropanolamine, estimated at $500 million to $1 billion anually, is saved
and in the interim, Americans continue to purchase phenylpropanolamine products
off the shelf assuming they are safe.
The pharmaceutical industry
hoped to make it through the 2000 cold season without pulling
November 2000 Two
weeks after an FDA advisory panel concluded that phenylpropanolamine could be
hazardous, an official with Bayer,
which made Alka-Seltzer Plus® with phenylpropanolamine, drafted a proposed
"phenylpropanolamine crisis action plan."
The crisis action plan's
stated objectives: "Delay mandatory implementation of FDA recommendation. Blunt
PR impact by highlighting as
conclusions as they pertain to cough/cold products."
Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis
of Therapeutics states that Ritalin® is "structurally related to
amphetamines. Its pharmacological properties are essentially the same as those
of the amphetamines." 1986 The International Journal of the
Addictions publishes "An Outline of Hazardous Side Effects of Ritalin
(Methylphenidate") by Richard Scarnati [v.21(7), pp. 837-841].
Scarnati listes over a hundred
of Ritalin® and indexes published journal articles for each of these
For every one of the following (selected and quoted verbatim)
Ritalin® effects then, there is at least one confirming source in the
DEA Schedule II
LSD in producing bizarre experiences
Brain damage is likely with
extended amphetamine abuse
Hypomanic and manic
symptoms, amphetamine-like psychosis
amphetamine-type chemical, creates amphatamine-like effects
Combo with antiDepressant reactions:
Ritalin® acts much like
1994 Textbook of Psychiatry, published by the
American Psychiatric Press, contains this review (Popper and Steingard):
"Stimulants [such as Ritalin®] do not produce lasting improvements in
aggressivity, conduct disorder, criminality, education achievement, job
functioning, marital relationships, or long-term adjustment."
"Stimulants such as Ritalin® and amphetamine have grossly harmful
impacts on the brain by reducing
overall blood flow,
disturbing glucose metabolism, and
possibly causing permanent shrinkage or
atrophy of the brain." - Peter Breggin, Talking Back to
1999 Running on Ritalin by
Lawrence Diller is printed.
"Dr. Diller has correctly described the
disturbing trend of blaming children's social, behavioral, and academic
performance problems entirely on an unproven brain deficit" - Dr. William
Carey, Director of Behavioral Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of
1911 Anton Köllisch, involved in
investigating syntheses for hydrastinine and methylhydrastinine, describes the
synthesis of the chemical MDMA.
1960 Project MKUltra is still
investigating new techniques of
The CIA hopes
MDMA can be used as a chemical
warfare agent designed to sow confusion,
anxiety and fear in the
Theodore John Kaczynski,
one of the test subjects undergoes "purposely brutalizing psychological
experiments" led by Harvard
psychologist Henry Murray under the influence of MDMA.
psychological experiments severely alter the brain of Theodore Kaczynski.
May 31, 1985 MDMA becomes illegal in
"A lot of the Ecstasy we see in Las Vegas comes from
Israeli dealers." - Sergeant Blake Quackenbush, Las Vegas Metropolitan Police
3,4-methylenedioxy-n-ethylamphetamine (MDEA) Schedule I.
1994 to 2004 Israeli chemical
traffickers dominate the trans-Atlantic lines of shipment of MDMA.
Tuito* imports more than 7 million "Ecstacy" pills into America before being
Oded Tuito dies mysteriously while incarcerated in
Metropolitan Detention Center in Brooklyn - the same place
was known as the world's largest trafficker of MDMA." - DEA administrator Karen
Tandy before the US House of Representatives Appropriations
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