This great Celtic oath calls
the very elements to witness.
Celts held a
primal holistic concept
powerful manifestations of gods, not to be trifled with.
Celtic oath is a most solemn
pledge to the elements to destroy those who do not keep their word and
repay their debts.
The state of the land is always
a reflection of the kingly rule.
Omens in the sky,
the soil no longer
growing crops, the
rains coming at the wrong times, unseasonable cold and hot waves,
all pointed to poor stewardship
on the part of the king who directed the activities of the people.
these omens point to bad advice ?
"Good is his
reign. Since he assumed the kingship, no cloud has veiled the sun for the space
of a day from the middle of spring to the middle of autumn. Not a dewdrop has
fallen from grass till midday."
The word druid (Irish drui, Welsh derwydd) is
derived from the Sanskrit:
veda - to see or know, combined with the word for oak: Gaulish dervo,
Irish dour, Welsh derw.
The words for wood and wisdom are
very close: Irish fid and fios mean tree and knowledge; Welsh
gwydd and gwyddon mean tree and
close connection suggests a druid is 'a knower of the tree' or 'tree-sage',
give a closer feel of what the druid really was -
a seer of great
knowledge, whose closeness to the natural world put him or her in the
position as a Walker
of the Thinspace between the
subconscious of mankind and
the unseen collective consciousness of
The druids, sons and
daughters of the Oak, were distinct by reason of the
gift of reading
The gathering place for Galatian druids was called
Drunemeton, literally "Oak Sanctuary".
Male and female druids
were gifted people who exhibited excellence in various arts (talents or skills) while
maintaining shamanic roles.
Druids were the repositories of
searched for deeper
understanding in the patterns revealed throughout Nature, used that
wisdom/knowledge to note the right time for spring sowing, autumn harvest or
the prognosis of an
Some druids specialized in
Branches of Nature,
becoming seers or
battle strategists as
well as advisers to
A druid is a person with natural wisdom whose advice is
sought on matters of daily life; one who perhaps also
practices a craft;
one who married and had a family;
one who brought people
together for common celebrations.
In the druid we see the earliest
form of tribal
leadership - which was spiritual
rather than temporal.
Distinctions between king and druid are
blurred in Celtic mythology.
Although the king is the assumed leader,
the druid rules through omen.
Rome banned the Druidic arts after
sacking Anglesey in AD 64.
function of the seer or fáithi, to divine the course of human
affairs through a
close observation of human nature, is still associated with people of
Celtic extraction, many of whom possess 'the second sight'.
4000 BC The ancient Celts are a branch of the Indo-Europeans,
an ethnico-linguistic group that includes Germanic, Slavic, Greek and
From the the Pontic-Caspian Steppes, the
Proto-Indo-Europeans conquer most of Europe, Central Asia and South Asia thanks
to the advent of the Bronze Age in the North Caucasus.
2500 Proto-Celtic people enter Europe from the Balkans
equipped with horses and superior bronze weapons quickly conquering Western
Europe, from Iberia to the British Isles.
Classical Celtic culture emerges in central Europe around modern Austria,
Bavaria and Switzerland as found in Hallstatt, Upper Austria.
600 to 400 BC La Tène culture spreads from the Alps to
most of Western and Central Europe.
People in these areas speak a
similar language, share the same religion, have similar traditions and beliefs
and engage in the same arts and techniques.
Celts are more advanced
than the Romans in science, law and
Pre-Roman Celtic calendars are much more accurate than the
Each Galatian tribe was organised in four septs (clans), each
ruled by a tetrach (chief), assisted by a judge, a general and two deputy
Each sept sent 25 senators to a central shrine called Drunemeton.
Celtic society gave much more freedom and power to women than
the Greeks and Romans did.
Greco-Roman housewives were prohibited to do
business and mostly sequestrated in their home under the supervision of male
Celtic women could become powerful tribe leaders and go
390 BC Celts plunder Rome.
are of primordial importance in Celtic religion.
Druids ritually cut
mistletoe off oak trees.
Celts believed in recycling - automatic
reincarnation of the Eternal Soul.
The Celts practised ritual human
sacrifice to the gods, typically near water (lake, river, spring) and/or in
Offerings appear to be war prisoners or criminals.
Druids, being both judges and priests, combining judicial executions
with the honouring of the gods.
Romans crucified political opponents and
had prisoners killed or eaten alive by wild beasts in arenas.
religious sacrifices were less barbaric than Romans executions.
ancient Celtic tribes gave their names to modern places.
named after the Boii, and Belgium after the Belgae.
ancient name of Switzerland was Helvetia, from the Celtic Helvetii
In France, Paris is named after the Parisi tribe, and
Lyon is a corruption of Celtic name Lugdunon, meaning the "hill fort of Lugh"
(one of the most important Celtic deity).
A Cisalpine branch of the
Veneti tribe gave their name to Venice and the Veneto region in Italy.
The Italian cities of Belluno, Bergamo, Bologna, Brescia, Brianza,
Genova and Milano all have Celtic roots.
Celts invent chainmail and the helmets later used by Roman legionaries.
Celtic swords and shields are at least as good as the Roman's.
The decoration of the Celtic weapons, chariots and artifacts was in
many ways superior to those of many Mediterranean cultures.
58 BC The Celts are immensely rich and prosperous.
have a built a road network across the European continent.
active trade with the Mediterranean world, exchanging notably their iron tools
and weapons for wine and pottery.
They import amber from the Baltic to
resell to the Romans and Greeks.
Gauls are described as wearing shiny,
gold-like armours and swords.
Julius Caesar, an opportunist, makes his
Over 400 Celtic gold mines are found in France alone.
Romans have little gold on the Apennine Peninsula so the conquest of Gaul will
be a tremendous boost to their Mediterranean power.
Patrician, decimates the Celts slaughtering 10% and enslaving another 10% to be
marched back to Rome as booty.
Jerome of Stridon
notes that the language of the Anatolian Galatians in his day is still very
similar to the language of the Treveri (from the region of Trier on the border
of Germany and Luxembourg).
Celtic languages progressively disappear
during the Middle Ages.
They only survive in Brittany, Corwall, Wales,
Scotland, Ireland, and for a time also in Galacia (north-western Spain).
Only a minority of people still speak Celtic/Gaelic languages, and they
are confined to Wales,
Brittany and western Ireland.
2001 The Basque
language is considered to be a language isolate; a language which is not known
to be related to any other in the world.
The Basques are thought to be
the closest descendants of the Palaeolithic people who established the first
settlements in Britain more than 10,000 years ago.
Welsh and Irishmen
are genetic blood-brothers of the Basque people.
The evidence of a link
is in a study published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy
of Sciences by James Wilson and Prof David Goldstein of University
College London, with colleagues at Oxford University and the
University of California, Davis.
findings provide the first direct evidence of a close relationship between the
people thought of as Celts and the Basques.
The team looked for
similarities between the Y chromosomes - only carried by men - of 88 "Celtic
fringe" individuals from Anglesey, North Wales, 146 from Ireland with Irish
Gaelic surnames, and 50 Basques, revealing "remarkable" similarities.
The Celts carry the early Y chromosome, said the study, which provides
the first clear evidence of a close relationship in the paternal heritage of
Basque and Celtic speaking populations.
"They were statistically
indistinguishable," said Prof Goldstein.
Study Shows Ties Long Veiled In Europe
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