"Insurance companies are
profit making corporations operating in a
market economy trying to outdo their competitors." - Donald Schwartz MD
"The very word insurance hints at the
assumption that life can indeed be
made secure, that the unsure can be made sure." - Charles Eisenstein
"All across the country,
insurance companies of every
sort have attempted to reduce their risk by increasing rates, dropping
customers who submit claims and, as a final insult, denying legitimate claims.
If there ever was a definition of a "criminal enterprise," the modern American
insurance industry fits the
bill!" - Carl Schellenberg 10/28/07 Insurance companies are owned
and operated for the benefit of transnational elite, not to 'protect'
the individual from financial calamity.
In the second quarter of
2007 Berkshire Hathaway Inc.
reported record earnings, mostly from it's insurance division, of $3.1 billion
Hathaway Inc. made over a billion dollars a month basically by selling
Two retired women,
Linda Williams and B. Walker were sued by a neighbor, Juanita Wasson, who
suffered a broken hip after being knocked down by their automatic garage door.
Farmers insurance defended the homeowners association, to which
Williams and Walker belonged, but filed a cross compliant against them
believing that they did not have the resources to fight in court. The two women
maxed out there credit cards to
hire lawyers and won a $ 8.3 million award against Farmers insurance as
punitive damages for breach of good faith.
"I became aware that many adjusters employed by Allstate
were engaging in conduct which was improper,
unlawful, fraudulent, and
in bad faith.
I became aware of
cases in which the adjuster retained an engineer and requested that the
engineer provide a report determining and detailing the cause and extent of the
damage caused by the earthquake.
Allstate's adjusters were requiring
engineers to provide a draft or preliminary report for the adjuster's review.
Where an engineer's draft report attributed any amount of damage, in
the adjuster's opinion, that could possibly have been exacerbated by the
earthquake and/or damage which may not be covered under the policy according to
the adjusters, the adjuster would instruct the engineer to alter the report to
reflect the adjuster's changes.
Engineers were repeatedly instructed to
alter draft reports in order to minimize the damage attributable to covered
losses in order to reduce any potential payments to the insured and in order to
benefit Allstate's financial interests."- Allstate claims analyst Jo Anne Lowe
commenting on the Northridge earthquake of 1/17/94 in
April 2007 Jury verdict rendered
in a case against Allstate.
Allstate was ordered to pay over $2 million
to a Louisiana homeowner who sued the insurer for manipulating an engineering
report to reduce its payment in the aftermath of
November 7, 2007 Lousiana
attorney general Charles Foti sues Allstate, State Farm, Lafayette Insurance
Co., USAA Casulity Insurance Co., Farmers Insurance Exchange, Standard Fire
Insurance and other insurance companies for colluding to reduce claim values.
A consulting firm, McKinsey & Co. was accused of being the
architect of sweeping changes in the insurance industry beginning in the 1980s.
McKinsey advised insures to "stop 'premium leakage' by undervaluing claims
using the tactics of deny, delay and defend."
The insurance companies
coerced policy holders into settling damage claims for less than their actual
value by editing engineering reports, delaying payments and forcing
policyholders to go to court to challenge insurance estimates of loss after
2007 23 year-old Ashley Ellis hits a man on a motorcycle two
days after her auto insurance expired. Ashley Ellis is not impaired or speeding
but is distracted by her dog which was riding in the car.
negligence Ashley Ellis was convicted of a misdemeanor and ordered to spend 30
days incarcerated. She lost forty pounds, originally 125, from the time of the
accident waiting to be incarcerated - about two years. After two days in jail
she died from lack of medical treatment which was provided by the independently
contracted corporation Prison Health Services.
For Ashley Ellis
a 30 day jail sentence became a death sentence.
organizations are prone to cut costs. The system failed." - Matthew
"The insurance contracts state clearly
if anything in the application is incomplete, coverage may be
rescinded." - Tom Epstein, BlueSheild
In California it is nearly
impossible to purchase individual health insurance (not employer provided)
unless you have never had surgery,
infections, ulcers or been
"According to regulators' postings, rejection letters and interviews
with insurance brokers, conditions that can lead to outright rejection or a
higher premium include:
deficit disorder, autism, bed-wetting,
fatigue syndrome, chronic sinusitis, cirrhosis, cystitis,
infections, epilepsy, "gender
reassignment" (an impossibility in reality), heart disease, hemochromatosis,
blood pressure, impotence,
irritable bowel syndrome, joint pain,
muscular dystrophy, migraine,
miscarriage, pregnancy, "expectant fatherhood," planned adoption, psoriasis,
ringworm, severe mental disorders,
sleep apnea, stroke, ulcers and varicose veins." - Lisa
"Insurance companies are offloading sick people onto the county
system. They want a guarantee that they are going to make money. That's why
they won't take sick people. They are missing the point about assuming some
risk." - Scott Svonkin
Insurance companies refuse to underwrite
individual health insurance policies for people that are employed in -
controlling air traffic; moving buildings; chemical and rubber manufacturing;
circus or carnival work; concrete or asphalt work; crop dusting; firefighting;
furniture and fixtures manufacturing; as a lumber jack; oil well and refinery
operations; police work; roofing; sandblasting; sports; stables; stockyard;
stunt work; telecom installation; transportation; tree trimming; tunnel
excavation; war reporting and washing
windows higher than three stories up.
2005 Insurance industry amassed record profits of $44.8 billion
($44,800,000,000) in a year of catastrophic loss.
insurers can get relief you are going to see a pullback by private industry."-
Robert P. Hartwig, chief economist of the industry funded Insurance
$44.8 billion profit is penny ante stuff to
these rough riders of catastrophic calamity. $44.8 billion is just not the
return that the insurance industry expected on their difficult to understand
legalize laden, layers of lawyers approved insurance policies.
2001 Senior analyst in charge of rescissions reviews for
Health Net, was expected to cancel 15 policies a month. Barbara Fowler
exceeded her quota by canceling 275 policies.
2003 Barbara Fowler saved Health Net $6 million by
canceling 301 policies.
2005 Health Net
set a goal for Barbara Fowler to save Health Net $6.5 million which she
exceeded. Barbara Fowler's bonuses ranged from $1654 to $6300 for canceling
health insurance policies of individuals experiencing expensive medical
"It is disgusting how Health Net dropped a patient in the midst
of chemotherapy. Barbara Fowler, Health Net's "senior analyst in charge
of rescission reviews" profited from it through bonuses. How many years in
medical school did Barbara Fowler study?" - Bill D. Holder
that Health Net gave out bonuses to drop sick insurance policyholders. The
for-profit health insurance industry will always be the winner, as it has to
be." - Sheila Hoff
November 2007 Health
Net agrees to pay a $1 million fine and promised to no longer link
compensation to coverage cancellation.
"As long as the word "insurance" is a part of the
American healthcare system, there will be no real reform. It is immoral and
inhumane that we use healthcare as a vehicle to support private industry,
specifically the insurance and
industries. These companies earn obscene profits and fat salaries for their
leaders, who make huge donations to politicians to ensure their continued
financial health." - Susan Guilford Underwriting
guidelines for several individual health insurance plans list certain drugs
that are likely to render the user ineligible for health insurance. The
question then becomes - are the drugs in and of themselves harmful or does use
of the drugs truly point to underlying conditions that frighten insurers
Either way it seems to be in the individuals best interest to not
be using any of the listed drugs unless it is quite obvious that not using the
listed drug brings on life threatening conditions.
Individuals may be refused individual health insurance coverage
if they use any of the following drugs:
cholesterol reducers -
digestive tract problems -
Nexium®, Prevacid®, Protinix®,
asthma control - Advair®, Singulair®;
depression control -
attention deficit disorder control -
allergy control - Allegra;
acne control - Accutane®;
pain control - Celebrex®;
control - Famvir®;
angina control - Imdur®;
migraine control -
fungal control - Lamisil®;
menstrual disorders -
hyperthyroid disorder - Tapazole®;
"It is an egregious mistake to think that the mission of
health insurance companies is to provide healthcare for the seriously ill.
Commercial insurers fulfill their legal and corporate mission by making profits
for their investors, not by providing care for the expensively ill. They do
this by avoiding people who are or may become seriously ill. The most
successful companies do this better than their competitors. Precisely because
this is and must remain the true north of commercial insurance, every other
developed nation pushes commercial insurance to the margins of their systems.
When we learn this basic lesson in the United States, we will have taken a
giant step toward radical reform." - John W. Glaser
"Unless stopped by
law, insurance company death panels (rescission committees) will continue to
operate. Large court judgements are just a cost of doing business. Last June, a
congressional committee found that Fortis, now known as Assurant, and two other
companies alone saved more than $300 million over five years by dropping policy
holders when they became ill. The death toll from the inability of millions of
Americans to obtain and keep affordable health insurance is unconscionable. An
Institutes of Medicine report in 2004 estimated that "lack of health insurance
causes roughly 18,000 unnecessary deaths every year in the US." This national
tragedy should shock us to the bone when we realize that every year, six times
as many Americans die because they can't get medical insurance than were killed
by terrorists on 911." - Andrew Skolnick, September 24, 2009
medicare and corporate
"Many national healthcare plans provide universal
insurance at a lower per-capita cost than the American system with better
results." - J.D. Hunley
"A jury might think $45 million is fair and just
compensation to the family of the woman who died while
hospital personnel ignored her
cries of pain for nearly an hour. But the judge will automatically reduce
any possible verdict to $250,000 - the most in non-economic damages anyone can
recover for any injury or death caused by a healthcare provider. The cap was
passed at the behest of the insurance industry and medical establishment more
than three decades ago. Because it has never been changed or adjusted - even
for inflation - we may be reaching a point at which letting patients die is
more cost-effective than treating them." - Linda Fermoyle Rice
July 1994 National Medical
Enterprises agreed to pay $379 million in criminal fines, civil damages,
and penalties for kickbacks and fraud at National Medical Enterprises
substance abuse hospitals in more than 30 states. After this settlement,
National Medical Enterprises renamed itself "Tenet".
October 1996 First American Health Care of Georgia,
Inc, later Integrated Health Services, Inc, agreed to reimburse the
federal government $255 million for overbilling and making fraudulent Medicare
claims. First American billed Medicare for costs unrelated to the care
of patients in their homes, including the personal expenses of senior
management, as well as marketing and lobbying expenses.
filed for bankruptcy and never
paid the settlement.
November 1996 Laboratory
Corporation of America Holdings (LabCorp), agreed to pay $182 million to
resolve charges that it submitted false claims for medically unnecessary
laboratory tests to federal and state health care programs. The fraud involved
bundled lab tests that were billed to Medicare as free-standing tests,
resulting in an eight-fold increase in charges to Medicare.
March 1997 SmithKline Beecham Clinical Laboratories
Inc. (SBCL), now GlaxoSmith
Kline, was ordered to pay $325 million for filing of false claims which
involved adding on laboratory tests not requested by doctors and which were not
medically necessary, billing for lab tests that were not actually performed,
giving kickbacks to doctors in order to get their business, and billing
Medicare for dialysis testing already paid for by
kidney dialysis centers.
July 1998 Blue Cross Blue Shield of Illinois (also
known as Health Care Service Corporation) pled guilty to eight felony
counts and agreed to pay $144 million. The nature of the fraud was that Blue
Cross Blue Shield Illinois manipulated work samples and falsified reports
to the Health Care Finance Administration in order to conceal evidence
of its poor performance as a federally-contracted processor of Medicare
January 2000 Fresenius Medical Care of
North America, the world's largest provider of
kidney dialysis products and services,
agreed to pay a fine of $486 million for a scam involving National Medical
Care, Inc. (NMC), a kidney
dialysis subsidiary owned by Fresenius which included fraudulent and
fictitious blood testing claims by LifeChem, Inc. and fraudulent claims
submitted to Medicare for intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN), a
nutritional therapy provided to patients during dialysis
February 2000 Beverly Enterprises
Inc., the nation's largest assisted living facility chain, agreed to pay
$175 million to resolve civil and criminal charges that it defrauded Medicare
by fabricating Medicare patient records.
2000 HCA The Healthcare Company (formerly known as Columbia
HCA), the largest for-profit hospital chain in the US, pled guilty to
criminal conduct and agreed to pay more than $840 million in criminal fines,
civil penalties and damages for unlawful billing practices. Fraud included:
billing for lab tests that were not medically necessary and not ordered by
physicians, "upcoding" medical problems in order to get higher reimbursements
for more serious medical issues, billing the government for advertising under
the guise of "community education," and billing the government for
non-reimbursable costs incurred in the purchase of health agencies around the
country. This agreement does not resolve allegations that HCA
unlawfully charged the government for
the costs of running its hospitals, and that it paid kickbacks to physicians to
get Medicare and Medicaid patients referred to its facilities.
March 2001 Vencor Inc., one of the nation's largest
assisted living facility chains, and Ventas Inc., a related real estate
investment trust, agreed to pay the US $104.5 million to resolve claims for
failure to provide the promised quality of care to assisted living facility
patients due to inadequate staffing, improper care of bedsores, and failure to
meet resident's basic dietary needs.
Taketa-Abbott Pharmaceutical Products Inc. agreed to pay $875 million to
resolve criminal charges and civil liabilities in connection with fraudulent
drug pricing and marketing of Lupron®, a drug sold for $500 per dose for
the treatment of prostate cancer under Medicare Part-A.
2002 Pfizer paid $49
million to settle state and federal Medicaid fraud charges involving
2003 Bayer paid $257,200,000 to
settle Medicaid fraud charges involving a "lick and stick" scheme in which
Bayer sold re-labeled products to an HMO
at deeply discounted prices, and then concealed this price discount in order to
avoid paying additional rebates to the government.
2003 AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals
LP agreed to pay $355,000,000 for providing free drug samples to
doctors and telling them to bill Medicare and Medicaid hundreds of dollars per
HCA agreed to pay the US $631 million in civil penalties
and damages arising from false claims, including cost report fraud and the
payment of kickbacks to physicians, submitted to Medicare and other federal
July 2003 CG Nutritionals,
Inc. pled guilty to obstructing a criminal investigation and defrauding the
Medicare and Medicaid programs and agreed to pay $400 million to resolve civil
claims. In addition, the subsidiary of Abbott Labs, CG Nutritionals,
Inc., agreed to a criminal fine of $200 million in relation to the sale of
products which pump special foods into the stomachs and digestive systems of
patients who are not able to ingest meals in a normal manner.
signed a corporate integrity agreement and paid $88 million in a civil fine for
for the antidepressant,
and nasal allergy spray, Flonase®.
2003 medicare prescription drug law
special interests, including HMOs and
corporations, dished out $141 million for 952 lobbyists - nearly twice as
many lobbyists as there are members of Congress - to make sure that the
Medicare bill was written for the benefit of large insurance and drug
companies, as opposed to the health needs of American citizens.
half of these lobbyists were former employees of the federal government,
including 30 former members of Congress, and at least 11 top staffers who left
federal administration to lobby for the pharmaceutical industry and HMOs.
Many of the government officials who worked to get the legislation
approved by Congress went on to jobs in the very corporations that will profit
from the legislation.
Tom Scully, a former
administrator of the Medicare program, actually negotiated future employment
with corporations that stood to benefit
handsomely from the pharmaceutical law, while actively promoting the
Another six top congressional staffers at the center of
negotiations over the Medicare bill became lobbyists for pharmaceutical
companies or HMOs.
Would it surprise anyone that 21 executives and
lobbyists from HMOs and the pharmaceutical industry served as major fundraisers
for George Walker Bush's presidential campaigns, collecting at least $100,000
("Pioneers") or $200,000 ("Rangers") for the 2000 or 2004 campaigns?
May 2004 Pfizer/Warner-Lambert agreed
to pay $430 million to resolve civil and criminal charges that it defrauded
Medicaid by engaging in an aggressive and complex scheme to illegally promote
Neurontin® for at least 11
July 2004 Schering-Plough agreed to a
criminal fine of $52.5 million, $117 million to settle state claims, and nearly
$176 million to settle federal claims for fraud in the pricing of Claritin®
sold to the Medicaid program.
December 2004 HealthSouth, the nation's largest
provider of rehabilitative medicine services, agreed to pay a fine of $325
million to settle allegations that the company systematically defrauded
Medicare and other federal healthcare programs.
Healthcare agreed to pay $310.5 million to resolve civil liabilities
stemming from alleged kickbacks paid to physicians, false statements made to
procure payment for unnecessary tests and services, and payments made to
Gambro Supply Corporation, a sham durable medical equipment subsidiary.
The Gambro Supply Corporation is permanently excluded from the
October 2005 Serono
agreed to pay $704 million to settle a fraud case involving Serostim® which
included kickbacks to doctors for prescribing Serostim®, kickbacks to
specialist pharmacies for recommending Serostim®,
off-label marketing of the drug, and non-FDA approved diagnosis equipment
designed to spur more Serostim prescriptions. Serostim® costs $20,000 for a
June 2006 St. Barnabas
Healthcare agrees to pay $265 million for inflated "outlier" Medicare
July 2006 Tenet
Healthcare agrees to pay the Federal Government $900 million for
billing violations that include manipulation of outlier payments to Medicare,
as well as kickbacks, upcoding, and bill padding.
August 2006 Schering-Plough agrees to pay a
total of $435 million to resolve criminal charges and civil liabilities in
connection with illegal sales and marketing programs for
brain tumor medication Temodar®,
and Intron-A® which is used in the treatment of bladder cancer and
hepatitis C. The Schering
settlement also covers best price violations related to Claritin RediTabs®
(an antihistamine), and K-Dur®, which is used in the treatment of
September 2007 Bristol-Myers Squibb agreed to pay $515
million to settle allegations involved pricing and promotional activities for
more than 50 drugs, 13 drugs of which made up 69% of Bristol-Myers' 2007
pharmaceutical revenue of $10.7 billion, including the blood thinner
Abilify®, the cholesterol treatment Pravachol®, the cancer therapy
Taxol®, and the antidepressant,
January 2008 Under the False Claims Act Merck settled
$650,000 for pricing fraud, taking kickback and violating Medicaid best price
regulations for Vioxx® (an arthritis
drug), Zocor® (a cholesterol drug),
Pepcid® (an acid-reflux drug), Cozaar® (a hypertensive medication),
Fosamax® (a bone loss drug) Maxalt® (a migraine medication) and
Singulair® (an asthma medication).
2008 Amerigroup was found liable for discriminating against
pregnant women who were supposed to be recruited into a state-sponsored
Medicaid HMO. Amerigroup settled allegations for
"I'm the former
insurance industry insider now speaking out about how big for-profit insurers
have hijacked our health care system and turned it into a giant ATM for
Wall Street. In recent years I had
grown increasingly uncomfortable serving as one of the industry's top PR
executives. I also served on a lot of trade association committees and
industry-financed coalitions, many of which were essentially front
groups for insurers. So I was in a unique position to see not only how
Wall Street analysts and investors
influence decisions insurance company executives make but also how the industry
has carried out behind-the-scenes PR and lobbying campaigns to kill or weaken
any health care reform efforts that threatened insurers' profitability.
What I saw happening over the past few years was a steady movement away
from the concept of insurance and toward "individual responsibility," a term
used a lot by insurers and their ideological allies. This is playing out as a
continuous shifting of the financial burden of health care costs away from
insurers and employers and onto the backs of individuals. If they are
unfortunate enough to become seriously ill or injured, many people enrolled in
these plans find themselves on the hook for such high medical bills that they
are losing their homes to
foreclosure or being forced into
As an industry spokesman,
I was expected to put a positive spin on
this trend that the industry forged and euphemistically refers to as "consumerism" and to promote so-called
"consumer-driven" health plans. Insurers want to preserve the image they are
working so hard to cultivate - as a group of kind and caring folks who think
only of you and your health. I ultimately reached the point of feeling like a
I thought I could live with being a well-paid huckster and
hang in there a few more years until I could retire. I probably would have if I
hadn't made a completely
spur-of-the-moment decision a couple of years ago that changed the
direction of my life. While visiting my folks in northeast Tennessee where I
grew up, I read in the local paper about a health "expedition" being held that
weekend a few miles up US 23 in Wise, Virginia. Doctors, nurses and other
medical professionals were volunteering their time to provide free medical care
to people who lived in the area. That 50-mile stretch of US 23, which twists
through the mountains where thousands of men have made their living working in
the coal mines, turned out to be my
"road to Damascus."
Nothing could have prepared me for what I saw when I reached the Wise
County Fairgrounds, where the "expedition" was being held. Hundreds of people
had camped out all night in the parking lot to be assured of seeing a doctor or
dentist when the gates opened. By the time I got there, long lines of people
stretched from every animal stall and tent where the volunteers were treating
patients. That scene was so visually and emotionally stunning it was all I
could do to hold back tears.
How could it be that citizens of the richest nation
in the world were being treated this way?
I realized that the
reason those people in Wise County had to wait in long lines to be treated in
animal stalls was because our Wall
Street driven health care system has forged
one of the most inequitable health care systems on Earth.
I did not
make a final decision to speak out
as a former insider until recently when it became clear to me that the
insurance industry and its allies (often including
drug and medical device
makers, business groups and even the American Medical Association)
were succeeding in shaping the current debate on health care reform. I heard
members of Congress reciting talking points like the ones I used to write to
scare people away from real reform. Whenever you hear a politician or pundit
use the term "government-run health
care" and warn that the creation of a public health insurance option that would
compete with private insurers (or heaven forbid, a single-payer system like the
one Canada has) will "lead us down the path
to socialism," know that the original source of the sound bite most likely
was some flack like I used to be." - Wendell Potter
for Quality and Affordable Healthcare" (AQAH) is a "secretive" group that
organizes "below-the-radar" activities to drum up opposition to health care
reform. AQAH is operated by one of the largest law firms in North Carolina,
Moore and Van Allen.
The pharmaceutical industry-funded front group
Center for Medicine in the Public Interest (CMPI) is helping its
corporate funders fight health care reform by disseminating misinformation and
orchestrating campaigns to generate fear about health care reform. CMPI arose
out of the Pacific Research Institute, a corporate front group that worked with
Philip Morris in the past to fabricate academic support for the tobacco
The US Chamber of Commerce sponsored online pop-up ads
to generate the appearance of "grassroots" opposition to health care reform.
The Chamber contracts with a public relations firm which in turn subcontracts
with an online marketing firm that coordinates the tasks of generating the ads
and signing people up for the Chamber's campaign. The ads tell readers that if
they complete a survey and give their names and personal information, they will
get a $150 American Express
Gift Card for use at Hooters Restaurants.
This web site is not a commercial web site and
is presented for educational
This website defines a
new perspective with which to engage reality to which its author adheres. The
author feels that the falsification of reality outside personal experience has
forged a populace unable to discern propaganda from reality and that this has
been done purposefully by an international corporate cartel through their
agents who wish to foist a corrupt version of reality on the human race.
occurs when any group refuses to tolerate religious practices, religious
beliefs or persons due to their religious ideology. This web site marks the
founding of a system of philosophy named The Truth of the Way of Life - a
rational religion based on reason which requires no leap of faith, accepts no
tithes, has no supreme leader, no church buildings and in which each and every
individual is encouraged to develop a personal relation with the Creator and
Sustainer through the pursuit of the knowledge of reality in the hope of curing
the spiritual corruption that has enveloped the human spirit. The tenets of The
Truth of the Way of Life are spelled out in detail on this web site by the
author. Violent acts against individuals due to their religious beliefs in
America is considered a "hate crime."
This web site in no way condones
violence. To the contrary the intent here is to reduce the violence that is
already occurring due to the international corporate cartels desire to control
the human race. The international corporate cartel already controls the world
economic system, corporate media worldwide, the global industrial military
entertainment complex and is responsible for the collapse of morals, the
elevation of self-centered behavior and the destruction of global ecosystems.
Civilization is based on cooperation. Cooperation does not occur at the point
of a gun.
American social mores and values have declined precipitously
over the last century as the corrupt international cartel has garnered more and
more power. This power rests in the ability to deceive the populace in general
through corporate media by pressing emotional buttons which have been
preprogrammed into the population through prior mass media psychological
operations. The results have been the destruction of the family and the
destruction of social structures that do not adhere to the corrupt
international elites vision of a perfect
world. Through distraction and coercion the direction of thought of the
bulk of the population has been directed toward solutions proposed by the
corrupt international elite that further consolidates their power and which
further their purposes.
All views and opinions presented on this web
site are the views and opinions of individual human men and women that, through
their writings, showed the capacity for intelligent, reasonable, rational,
insightful and unpopular thought. All factual information presented on this web
site is believed to be true and accurate and is presented as originally
presented in print media which may or may not have originally presented the
facts truthfully. Opinion and thoughts have been adapted, edited, corrected,
redacted, combined, added to, re-edited and re-corrected as nearly all opinion
and thought has been throughout time but has been done so in the spirit of the
original writer with the intent of making his or her thoughts and opinions
clearer and relevant to the reader in the present time.
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